Myth novel "journey to the west" once said Tang four came to a mysterious "daughter of the country". There is no man, woman to twenty years old, went to drink mother river water, a few days later it gave birth to a girl.
In real life, people have been trying to develop a variety of assisted reproductive technology, to help many infertile, infertile couples successfully bred offspring. Recently, scientists have developed a new technology in the laboratory, and even allow women to be able to get their own offspring, the magic of the "daughter" of the water in the end is a kind of technology?
One, "sperm egg" combination to create life
In nature, the beginning of the new life of most higher animals is due to the combination of the father's sperm and the mother's egg. The sperm egg is combined to form a fertilized egg, and the new life is born. For millions of years, the combination of sperm and egg is believed to be the route to higher animals the birth of new life, their same-sex repulsion, opposites attract, sexual cells through binding mechanism maintains life continue to multiply.
Today, in the laboratory of Animal Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, scientists have only been using eggs on the realization of the mammalian reproduction, breaking the inherent in the nature of the reproductive Regularity -- this is the magic of cells "sex reassignment surgery".
Two, the magic of haploid stem cell technology
In recent years, scientists from the Chinese Academy of sciences have made remarkable achievements in the use of a technique called haploid stem cells.
In 2012, Zhou Qi research team of the Institute of animal science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, has made a breakthrough in the study of the field of haploid stem cell in mice. After 2 years of experimental exploration, they injected a mouse sperm into the oocytes to remove the nucleus of the oocyte, after the development and culture in vitro, and finally obtained the lone male haploid stem cells.This haploid stem cell, which is obtained in a similar way, has only normal cells (which we call haploid) and is able to stabilize the passage of the stem cells.
It was found that the androgenetic haploid stem cells of the table values like sperm genetic modification and cell ploidy, by way of oocyte cytoplasmic injection, it can successfully replace sperm obtained from haploid stem cell development and to the offspring. The obtained from mammalian sperm or egg stem cells bear a special mission, it can like normal stem cells as infinite amplification and propagation, and the time will morph, can substitute for sperm or eggs as a germ cell breed, this is simply cells "super soldier".
Three, stem cells "degeneration surgery" to achieve same-sex reproduction
Recently, scientists have used genetic editing methods to carry out an unprecedented scale of the haploid stem cells ". Scientists first a gold mouse oocytes develop into parthenogenesis haploid stem cells, which contain only a single set of chromosomes of the cell theory can be used to replace the union of sperm and egg, but this two sources are female cells, ultimately failed to obtain the crystallization of love. Is it only like the sperm and eggs that the real "opposite sex" can suck it?
The study found that the two sources are female cells can not successfully combines, is due to the cells in a called gene imprinting characteristics in Hanky panky, imprinted genes like cells "birthmark", marking the cells actually comes from the father or mother.
In view of the root, the scientists using gene modified means change the two known as H19 and Gtl2 two important imprinted genes, will originally female mark reversal to male imprint, a field in the cells of the sex reassignment surgery so complete.
After sex reversal after the cells were re injected into mouse oocytes, they finally break through the shackles of gender, the crystallization of love: successfully developed into by two female mice as parent offspring. Journey to the West in the magical "daughter of the country water" has now been scientists have cracked, same-sex reproduction in mammals has in the laboratory become a reality, which is in the field of reproductive another milestone achievements.
However, due to our understanding of the imprinted genes in mammals is still limited, currently only able to achieve female reproduction in the laboratory, the distance between the male reproductive we believe that it is difficult to achieve. Life science is still like the vastness of the universe, the general mystery, scientists will continue to bring us a layer upon layer of the mystery of life.