Author Tie Liu, Lei Feng Network (Public: Lei Feng Network) exclusive first article.
November 17, the United States local time, after 3GPP RAN1 87 meeting to discuss the main push of China's Huawei Polar Code (polarization code) program, a 5G control channel eMBB scene encoding scheme. This marked the Chinese telecommunications manufacturers in the 5G era has a higher voice, but also reflects the strength of China's communications technology more powerful.
However, we should also note that Huawei's main push of the Polar Code program is only to become 5G control channel eMBB scene coding scheme, and LDPC code to become the data channel uplink and downlink short code program, 5G in the long code is also recognized as LDPC program, In the 5G communication standards, China's telecommunications industry to beat the US telecommunications industry is also incompetent.
What is a long code, short code, coding channel, control channel?
At present, China's main push of Huawei's Polar Code (polarization code) program, as 5G control channel eMBB scene encoding scheme, and LDPC code as data channel uplink and downlink short code program. 5G in the long code is also recognized as LDPC program. So, long code, short code in the end what does that mean?
Optimized coding is designed to represent an instruction with the shortest possible number of bits, and the shorter the efficiency, the better. In the case of the same number of instructions, the more commonly used instructions, of course, the shorter the better, but the instructions will result in a long unequal receiver heavy processing burden. And then use a long code will obviously lead to a large number of invalid data transmission, waste bandwidth. So the instructions into two groups (individual also has three groups), commonly used relatively short binary digits, not commonly used with relatively long binary digits. Short codes represent commonly used instructions, and long codes represent less frequently used instructions.
Then, Huawei's efforts to short-code control channel and high-pass code gain channel is what is it?
Control channel (CCH) is used to transmit signaling or synchronization of information channels, mainly for the transmission of instructions to operate the lower network equipment. In order to correct these errors and prevent the further accumulation of error information, the error correction coding of the digital signal to be transmitted in the channel is the channel coding because of the possibility of error caused by external interference during the transmission of information through the network. As the transmission speed increases and more and more kinds of transmission protocols work at the same time, the number of data channels also increases greatly, and the transmission of channel coding is gradually independent, and the dedicated channel is responsible for this, that is, the coding channel. Enhance the data transmission in the channel when the ability to resist all kinds of interference, improve system reliability.
What are the advantages of Polar Code?
Information coding is the core of information dissemination, which is similar to human communication with language coding, while Chinese and English are carriers of information. According to Shannon's second theorem, there is a class of coding as long as the information transmission rate is less than the channel capacity , The error rate of the information transmission can be arbitrarily small. According to this theorem, researchers have developed RS code, convolutional code, Turbo code and other technologies. In China, the main push of the TDS, TD-LTE and other standards, TDS part of the patent from Siemens, and TD-LTE core long code encoding Turbo code and short code bit-tail convolutional code, nor is China's original technology.
The Polar Code 5G control channel eMBB scene coding scheme, it is the Chinese manufacturers technical strength and national comprehensive strength of the embodiment. The main push of the Polar Code in the theoretical proof of the binary input symmetric discrete memoryless channel, the polarized code can "achieve" Shannon capacity, and has a low coding and decoding complexity. In particular, Polar Code has three major advantages:
First, the Polar Code has a higher gain than the Turbo.
Second, the reliability of Polar Code relative to Turbo higher, in the 5G ultra-high reliability business applications to achieve 99.999% reliability.
Third, Polar Code decoding complexity is low, in the same degree of responsibility, the contrast Turbo power consumption can be reduced more than 20 times.
In addition, Huawei's main push of the main advantages of the code in addition to error correction capability, but also this is the world's only known to be strictly proven channel capacity to achieve channel coding method, which for high-bandwidth network management Is very important, but also very potential, patent barriers are more appropriate (too high barriers to patent technology in the current field of communication is difficult to become a standard).
It is because of these advantages that Polar Code was born less than ten years, but through the continuous efforts of channel coding scholars, the current Polar code can achieve the error correction performance than the currently widely used Turbo code (French main push standard), LDPC code (US main push).
Although non-original but without prejudice to Huawei's real grasp of the core code of commercial core technology
Some people say that the first code is not the first proposed by Huawei, it is picking up teeth, and do not have the key technology. However, the contrary, as CDMA is not Qualcomm proposed, but this does not affect the establishment of Qualcomm CDMA-based communications hegemony, empathy, although the first code is not made by Huawei, but also without prejudice to Huawei and other domestic communication companies in real terms Polar core commercial technology, even if the channel polarization this method is indeed by Arikan and Teleta two scientists put forward.
Polar code founder Arikan and Teleta, put forward in 08 to 09 years,Polar code was born less than ten years, & Lt;
This is a technically superior code, Huawei has long valued its technology potential, put a lot of money for practical research. Through the continuous efforts of channel coding scholars, the current Polar code can achieve the error correction performance than the currently widely used Turbo code (French main push standard), LDPC code.
LDPC is the international information field by the Dean Gallager about fifty years ago for the first time. The advantage is that after 50 years of development is very stable and efficient, but many ideas can not be called advanced. But after several expansion, is still strong in the information industry on the front line position.
Compared with the high-pass technology, less mature shortcomings is very obvious.Huawei said the first time in 10 years began pre-polar code, there is only one framework. Huawei two years after the study to solve the coding structure, decoding on the basis of the problem (even desperately overtime which has been very fast). According to the latest public 14-year technical information, IS selection problem, code length, decoding algorithm, HARQ, etc. have not been well resolved. After two years of cold and heat, Huawei's main push of the standard will be able to beat the high-pass and the French electricity standards, said the miracle is not excessive.
For the first time, the channel coding standards were driven by Chinese companies and led 51 companies to sign with 37 (the second highest Qualcomm), demonstrating its strong leadership in the communications field. Huawei's official research push this new code only 4 years in the control channel eMBB scene coding scheme to defeat more than 50 years of history LDPC code. Proving Huawei's strong R & D capability. And many European and American base station equipment manufacturers (Ericsson, Nokia) and terminal equipment manufacturers (Samsung, Qualcomm, etc.) in recent years the accumulation of Polar is almost zero. This also means that Huawei will be in these directions on the market more smoothly.
Of course, we have to see Huawei is only a short code in the control channel eMBB scene standard setting right, not as some media as propaganda "Huawei rolling Qualcomm, won the 5G era".
Behind the game
Communication standards competition is essentially a game between the big powers, which makes some although have a certain technical strength, but the national comprehensive national strength of the communications enterprises is difficult to become the dominant standard of players, Ericsson, Nokia and other 5G communication standards Can only choose the side station team, not the main push standard. France's strength can not be compared with China and the United States, which makes the main push of the French Turbo2.0 soy sauce almost become the role of China and the United States of communications companies have become the protagonist of this communication standards battle.
For the telecommunications standards of the dispute between the countries of the gun manufacturers of strong smell of gunpowder, after all, high-pass CDMA patent with high taxes, anti-patent licensing scene and vividly. In the previous long code dispute, because the core of the program Qualcomm essential patents have expired, so get the Samsung and other national power is relatively second-rate, technical strength and first-line manufacturers there is a gap between the support of the middle of communication manufacturers, and In the final duel with a slight advantage to beat Huawei's program.
this timeHuawei access to the control code, the main rival is the main push of the US LDPC, and the French main push Turbo2.0. Although Alcatel France and Lucent first merger, and 320 million US dollars to take over Nortel's 3G business in recent years is merged with Nokia, has been the media ridicule for the loser alliance, but after all, a collection of Western communications power communications services , The strength can not be overlooked. Unfortunately, France's national strength is not good, the EU looks fit, resulting in the game lost to the United States.
It can be said that the main push of the Polar Code Huawei 5G control channel eMBB to become a scene encoding scheme, largely from China's growing comprehensive national strength, Voting, Huawei in the country's old rival ZTE gave a lot of support, China Telecom, China Mobile, China Unicom, Datang Telecom also chose to support Huawei. Although the Huawei Navy and the fans and millet fans and water army in the online play you dead or alive, but in reality millet still voted for Huawei, in the mobile phone business and the existence of competition between Huawei, oppo, Lenovo, Cool also choose Support Huawei, China Taiwan's universities and communications companies to support Huawei. And even EU companies will vote for Huawei's - mdash; This has to make people feel the public relations of Huawei's ability to contact.
In the decades before, the domestic communications equipment market is dominated by overseas manufacturers occupy in the development of communication standards can only look on the stare, after TDS, TD-LTE tempered, the Chinese communications industry more powerful, Polar Code become 5G control channel eMBB Scene coding scheme is the hard work of China's communications engineers achievements.
For high-pass gains long code and short code data encoding, people do not have too much in mind, after all, in the 3G era dominate the shadow of high-pass has not yet subsided, any communications company worldwide will not allow the emergence of a dominance of the situation again, to some extent , This Huawei, Qualcomm can be gains, on the one hand lies in their own technical strength, more or is the comprehensive national power and the two countries of the global communications game manufacturers.