It would not be easy to send astronauts to Mars. In order to allow manned spacecraft to land on the surface of Mars, NASA (NASA) need to invent many things that do not exist. We are not talking about three or five gadgets, and NASA is studying 40 amazing new technologies to meet the deadline for mankind to send Mars to Mars in 2033, and to support these people for at least a few months on Mars.
Thomas Edison (Thomas Edison) did get thousands of patents, but this person did not attempt to safely send the human to the surface of another world of 54.4 million kilometers, and had to endure long cold, eternal Vacuum environment. Each of these 40 technologies is much more complex than light bulbs. NASA is responsible for the space technology task bureau deputy director Stephen & middot;
Stephen Jurczyk needs to ensure that NASA engineers continue to complete the task and make these technologies available on time. He seems to be optimistic about the Martian tour, but said the agency needs to be flexible when moving forward. Yulchik said: "This is a huge challenge, but we can definitely achieve the goal." The following is the spring of 2017 NASA is developing the Mars-related mission technology:
Figure 2: Advanced propellant storage, advanced robot and inspection systems, advanced launch vehicle systems, advanced structures and materials, enhanced ground handling and operation, assembly and aggregation, advanced system development and testing, long-term propellant storage and delivery
1. Satellite propellant delivery: This involves the automatic addition of fuel technology to spacecraft in orbit space. Spacecraft do not have to fill all the fuel needed for space travel on the ground, because carrying these fuels into outer space will consume more energy The
2. Advanced robots and inspection systems: This autonomous technology can work more efficiently and more accurately.
3. Advanced launch vehicle system: In fact, this is the space launch system (Space Launch System), which is the world's most powerful rocket.
Figure 3: NASA next-generation space launch system is close to 111 meters, will provide 115 tons of lift, the superstructure has a strong exploration function
4. Advanced structures and materials: Manufacture of lightweight rockets, such as space launch systems, uses light materials, but they are still strong enough to bring the payload out of the atmosphere. Some of these materials have not even been invented, but if NASA and the rest of the world really want to go to Mars, these materials are not essential.
5. Enhanced ground handling and operation: These tools and instruments help the task control team perform tasks on the ground.
6. Assembly and aggregation: It is exciting that manufacturing technologies such as 3D printing can revolutionize the aerospace industry and make the cost of on-orbit operations lower.
7. Advanced system development and testing: This is an all-encompassing phrase, basically referring to the "better technology".
8. Long-term propellant storage and transportation: When we talk about propellant delivery, we are not just talking about the very small amount of transportation. We need to work together to build a viable gas station that can provide on-orbit services for a variety of spacecraft. Basically, it can be called a space station.
Figure 4: Advanced power management systems, advanced thermal management systems, near-zero evaporative cryogenic systems, advanced liquid oxygen / methane engines, advanced solar sails, high thrust storage engines, advanced engine materials and manufacturing technology in alphabetical order, Advanced propellant
9. High-power nuclear propulsion: In order to keep space travel going, we need a new propeller, which can not rely on chemical propellants. Nuclear power advance has been listed on NASA's mission list.
10. Advanced thermal management system: because astronauts apparently do not like to be frozen in space.
11. Near-zero evaporation Low temperature system: The propellant stored in the tank also requires temperature control. Cryogenic tanks are usually used to accomplish this work, but even if there is a slight change in temperature, they may have a significant impact on the pressure of these tanks so that they can easily burst. NASA said that near-zero evaporation cans (Zbot) technology is an alternative to controlling the pressure of volatile liquid fuel tanks, mainly using the experimental fluid to test the active cooling function and forced eruption function.
12. Advanced Liquid Oxygen / Methane Engine: A way to make space travel more sustainable is not to use straight trench chemical propellants, but to start using compounds that are easier to produce in space. Liquid oxygen (LOX) and methane are two of these propellants that are easily fabricated using materials from asteroids and other planets. In SpaceX, for example, they plan to use such a propellant to land on Mars.
13. Advanced Solar Sail: Another driving factor in space travel may be solar sail technology, which absorbs the energy of the sun through ultra-thin, photon-driven materials, and then drives the spacecraft at a high distance.
14. High Thrust Storage Engine: It's just "better engine" and "fashionable".
15. Advanced engine materials and manufacturing technology: Now the manufacturing and testing engine is a very expensive and time-consuming process. Finding ways to reduce costs will help create a cheaper space flight for everyone.
16. Advanced propellant
Figure 5: Advanced payload delivery, advanced structure and materials, advanced thermal protection systems, advanced design concepts, navigation and control algorithms, supersonic deceleration pushers, modeling and simulation, accurate landing in alphabetical order.
17. Martian Surface Payload Delivery: At the Humans to Mars Summit, Yulcick made a suitable way to find a safe landing in the Martian atmosphere, down to the ground. Landing on Mars's manned spacecraft may weigh about 20 tons, than in 2012 landing Mars curiosity detector 20 times. Yulchik admitted frankly that landing on the surface of Mars was the most worrying problem facing its team.
Figure 6: NASA is located in Houston's Johnson Space Center, engineers and technicians are testing astronauts in the outer space when wearing the space suit
18. Advanced structure and materials: related to entry into the atmosphere, descent and landing. This means that it is necessary to build a spacecraft that can pass through the Martian atmosphere without being burned, and it can quickly decelerate against the ground.
19. Advanced thermal protection system: to help people heat.
20. Advanced design concept: This is another vague phrase, mainly refers to the process of entering Mars, falling and landing more innovative ways to make this process more secure and smoother.
21. Navigation and Control Algorithms: Specifically, it means to ensure that the spacecraft knows where it is now, what height is present and what steps need to be taken to ensure a safe landing instrument.
22. supersonic decelerator: supersonic decelerator seems to be the key to landing on Mars. This is also the SpaceX plan to let human landing Mars way, NASA also eager to cooperate with the company to see its "Red Dragon" spacecraft is able to succeed.
23. Modeling and Simulation: When the manned spacecraft to use the instrument to collect the data in the process of descent, it also based on the information to determine what action they want to take. These models are critical to astronauts who want to ensure their safe landing on the ground.
24. Accurate landing: When these astronauts landed on the surface of the red planet, the camp has been built. Unless they can land within 50 steps of the base, otherwise the task will not proceed as planned. They should be able to land in less than 50 meters away.
Figure 7: Automated systems, high-bandwidth communications, long-term reliable residential systems, increased consumer recycling, resource in situ use, high-power surface systems, enhanced surface migration, and low-quality maintenance of EVA systems in alphabetical order
25. Automation System: This does not refer to a particular system, but to artificial intelligence that can be used in most or all types of spacecraft, tools, buildings, or astronauts working, living, and traveling on Mars )technology.
26. High-bandwidth communication: Mars on the staff will not have multiple signal towers to help them strengthen their communication. NASA will create one or two similar devices designed to help communicate over long distances to withstand the effects of weather or other anomalies.
27. Long-term reliable living system: that is, the house on Mars. Maybe they are built with ice, but it is more likely that it does not look much different from the house we built in Antarctica.
28. Increased Consumer Recycling: Mars does not have the rich food and fresh water that we are accustomed to on Earth, and we need to find ways to recover water and waste as efficiently as possible to make the best use of every resource.
29. In situ use of resources: In addition, we need to find a better way to take advantage of what is already on Mars. This means that we can convert the ice on Mars into liquid water and oxygen, the use of methane in the atmosphere to produce fuel.
Figure 8: NASA's nuclear power vehicle
30. High power surface systems: Do not expect the initial Mars ground infrastructure to be highly utilized for solar energy. "We do not think it's feasible to use solar energy on the surface of Mars," he said. On the contrary, NASA is considering using nuclear power on Mars, which can provide enough power for the initial human base. This is not what you expected, because in the "Martian" (The Martian), we see Matt & middot; Dammont (Matt Damon) on Mars dragged the solar panels everywhere. However, nuclear energy is indeed a viable option.
31. Enhance the surface migration capacity: you can borrow Mars landing car and space suit
Figure 9: The left side of the EMU space suit is currently used by astronauts, the middle of the PXS is a technical proof of the product, the right Z-2 is more advanced suits
32. Low quality maintenance EVA system: We are talking about space suits. NASA has been planning how to create better space suits for future Mars astronauts who need to be more flexible because they want to walk around new buildings and conduct scientific experiments. In addition, these suits also need to be equipped with a better system to facilitate the astronauts to solve personal problems on the road.
Figure 10: Figure 10: Radiation protection in alphabetical order, improved modulation and coding, optical communication, improved photovoltaic cells, increased battery density, low temperature components, new observing platforms, high performance power
33. Radiation protection: We still do not have a good solution to the threat of space radiation. But Jurczyk says NASA is trying to find a problem with the two birds and two birds. He said: "We are developing better propellers to reach Mars more quickly, which will allow astronauts to significantly reduce the time of exposure to space cosmic radiation." It is not clear what kind of plan to use, but NASA believes that it is necessary to develop something that can continue to be used in the middle of the way to reduce the amount of chemical fuel that comes to Mars. In addition, NASA also needs to develop a better protective cover to protect the spacecraft. Now we need to travel to Mars for 6 months. However, the shield is quite heavy and requires a lot of energy. NASA needs to develop better materials that can be installed outside the spacecraft while maintaining light weight, which is a delicate balance.
34. Improved modulation and coding: outer space communication is not convenient. In order to enable people on Mars to talk quickly and easily with the task control staff, we need to develop a better way to deliver information back and forth. This part of the need to rely on the device itself, but also the need for strong software support.
35. Optical communication: Outer space communications and equipment are closely related, NASA need to create more powerful tools.
36. Improved Photovoltaic: This is related to solar power, and solar energy may not be used on the surface of Mars as is currently envisioned, but NASA still intends to use solar energy as the primary means of supplying rail equipment.
37. Increase the battery density: store more power.
38. Low temperature components: the vacuum environment in space and the surface of Mars are cold hell, the technology needs to work in these extremely cold temperatures.
39. New Observatory: Wherever we go, we need more innovative ways to conduct scientific research. We will not always be able to create a research system that is suitable for a single world, but rather to create a platform for a variety of environments.
40. High-performance power supply: We need to create an energy beyond our dreams. It is from this 40 technology, NASA is trying to send us to Mars, at least these projects have financial support.
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