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Do you think Google X is engaging in innovation? They are engaged in the invention

via:博客园     time:2017/10/16 12:26:21     readed:140

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The American Journal of the Atlantic has written an essay about how Google X Labs has struggled to restore art that has almost been forgotten by the growing lack of inventions in the United States.

The following is the original content:

problem

A snake-like robot designer, a balloon scientist, an LCD technologist, a heterogeneous physicist, a psychologist, an electronic material expert and a reporter went into a room. Reporters asked the crowd: should we build a house at sea?

Here is Google X, that is, Google parent company Alphabet's so-called "lunar factory". This is not a elaborate joke. People in this room have a special ability: they can come up with an unusual answer to the key question. In densely populated coastal cities, housing shortages are very serious. Ocean house makes people feel incredible. In their invitation, I also put forward their own "lunar month" plan, although I am still worried that they will be ridiculed.

Like a think tank with an impromptu performance, the group suddenly began to ask questions.

"What are the specific economic benefits of increasing housing supply?" "LCD experts asked.

"Transportation infrastructure is so expensive, this is the key question?" "said the balloon scientist.

"Living in a building-intensive city, how much is it that makes us more happy?" "The meta-physicist wants to know."

In an hour's time, the topic first turned to the ergonomic principles of Tokyo high-speed rail, and then turned into the Americans on the suburbs of cultural preferences. This group of people discuss common-sense solutions of urban density, such as increasing traffic construction funds, and discussing many weird ideas, such as the use of acoustic technology to improve the sound insulation of the apartment, as well as the unit with automatic driving function, so that it can The city center is stacked up. Even once someone talked about the moment to move.

Google X is perhaps the only company on the planet that encourages and even requires employees to study absurd ideas on a regular basis. Google X has quietly studied the space elevator and cold fusion. It has also tried to use magnetic levitation technology to develop suspended skateboards, as well as from the sea to extract the price of the people's fuel, but failed in the end. But they also have a lot of successful projects, including the development of automatic driving cars, can deliver parcels of unmanned aerial vehicles, but also designed to use diabetes to measure blood glucose contact lenses.

These thoughts sounded very casual, there is no law to find. But it is not. Every idea of ​​Google X follows three conditions.

First, must solve a major problem;

Secondly, a set of radical solutions must be proposed;

Thirdly, a relatively viable technique must be adopted.

In other words, in addition to frivolous, insignificant, and impossible ideas, any ideas can become "lunar plan" and "ralph lauren pas cher."

Google X is not intended to solve Google's own problems; they already have thousands of employees engaged in this task. It is not a charity. In fact, the ultimate goal of Google X is to create a lot of companies can change the world, it is best to eventually breed the next Google.

From clean energy to artificial intelligence, the company will consider more than 100 ideas each year. But only a small part of the final change into "project" to get full-time staff support. It is difficult to determine whether these projects will eventually reach the moon & rdquo;: Google X was only set up in 2010, its project span for several years. Critics have pointed out that the company's current revenue is insufficient. But there are several projects that seem to be broad prospects - the most famous is the unmanned car company Waymo, recently a Wall Street company to give its $ 70 billion valuation.

Google X is mysterious. The company will not disclose to investors the budget or the number of employees, and rarely accepted by reporters. But this summer, they allowed me to spend a few days with dozens of scientists, engineers and thinkers to start a dialogue. I take the initiative to put forward my own absurd ideas, hoping to better understand the creative philosophy to support its development model. So there was the beginning of the scene: I told a physicist and a robot scientist debated to explore the feasibility of building floating apartments on the San Francisco coast.

I thought that the team would draw some floating houses on the whiteboard, or discuss ways to connect the oceanic suburbs to the city center, or tell me that the idea was very bad. But I was wrong. We did not mention floating or ocean words throughout our discussion. My presentation just inspired their exploration of the purpose of housing and the shortage of infrastructure in the United States. This is my first radical creative lesson. The starting point of the lunar month is not a wise answer in a thoughtful way, but to try to find the right question.

Creativity is ancient, but it is also a new science. It was not until 1950 that J. P. Guilford, a famous psychologist at the University of Southern California, introduced the Department of Creativity in an important speech at the American Psychological Association. "I am very hesitant to think about whether to discuss the theme of creativity. "said his opening remarks, because psychologists are usually afraid to get involved in this area. & rdquo;

It is a great time to study human ingenuity, especially on the west coast. In the next ten years, this piece of almond trees in the south of San Francisco took the first step towards becoming a Silicon Valley.

However, in the past 60 years there have been some strange things. With the continuous development of academic research on creativity, some key indicators of national creativity have begun to decline, and some even in sharp decline. Entrepreneurship may have become a symbol of identity, but the US entrepreneurial rate has been declining for decades.

Innovative labels such as the prairie fire generally spread rapidly, whether it is a small adjustment of the soda or toothpaste, seems to have integrated into the innovative elements, but the rate of productivity growth since the last century since the 1970s has been declining. Silicon Valley, also known as the economic growth engine, has also been severely criticized for putting a lot of talent on trivial issues, such as making fruit juices, or finding a freelancer to help you get your clothes.

Breakthrough technology derives from two distinct activities of invention and innovation, which often require different environments. The invention is usually done by scientists and researchers in the laboratory, just as the Bell Labs developed in the 1940s. Innovation is the invention used for commercial purposes, such as Texas Instruments in the 20th century, 50 sales of transistor radio.

These two activities rarely coexist under the same roof. They often need to thrive in the opposite conditions; although competition and consumer choice can encourage innovation, but in the invention of the survival of the laboratory, the researchers have always been no profit pressure.

The United States today is the most lack of progressive innovation, but a breakthrough invention. Since the 1960s, R & D expenditure has fallen by two thirds of the federal budget. In the middle of the twentieth century, great laboratory laboratories such as Bell Labs and the Schroiblero Alto Research Center (PARC) also narrowed the scale and ambition felt suppressed.

The decline in the US "lunar month project" began with a decline in the federal government's investment in basic science. Allowing a well-diversified team to solve major problems, spawned a series of epoch-making technologies such as the nuclear age, transistors, computers and the Internet. Today, the United States only complained about the harvest is not good, but forget to plant ambitious research.

In Google X, no one would claim that they are about to create a new generation of platform technology like power and the Internet that can boost the economy as a whole. Their specialty is not engaged in research-based university good at basic science. But Google X is still starting a bold attempt.

It also invests in inventions and innovations. Its founders want to find the secret of technological breakthroughs and standardize the entire process from questioning and creativity to discovering and product, and in this way you can write a radical creative handbook.

Fuzzy concept

At the headquarters of the Google X Palo Alto, project artifacts and prototyping products are hung on the wall, just as in the museum to show alternative future. An unmanned car parked in the hall. The UAVs like Jedi are on the rafters. In a three-storey atrium, there is a large screen to render the visitors into the eyes of an unmanned car. & Mdash; & gdash; the ghosts drawn like a drawing are usually moved back and forth in a colored grid. Feeling like Sealat (Seurat) drawn the same as the Atari game.

In the UAV there, I found Astro - Taylor (Astro Teller). He is the head of Google X, his title is "lunar month captain" feel a bit like a pirate, also revealed a trace of pride and leadership qualities. He kept a long black ponytail and silver goat Hu, wearing a long-sleeved T-shirt, dark jeans and black roller skates. I asked him if he was just skating? He said: "In fact, I am in the office about 98% of the time are wearing skates. "I looked at Google X's public relations staff to make sure he was joking. The expression of the other side is clear: he said it is true.

47-year-old Taylor was born in the family of senior intellectuals. His grandfather is the father of the hydrogen bomb "Edward Teller", the grandfather is the mathematician Gerard Debreu (Gerard Debreu), is also the Nobel laureate in economics. Taylor has a Ph.D. in artificial intelligence from Carnegie Mellon University. He is also an entrepreneur and has published two novels, as well as a non-fictional book Sacred Cows & mdash; He wrote a book about marriage and divorce with his second wife.

"Astro & rdquo; is his nickname, for the lunar factory" ralph lauren pas cher, "the person in charge seems to be some embarrassment, but the nickname actually from high school, my friends at that time felt his little flat like a Straw turf. His name is actually Eric.

In 2010, Taylor joined Google's new division, hoping to use the company's huge profits to explore bold new ideas, Taylor called "lunar month plan" and "ralph lauren pas cher." X this name means placeholder & mdash; & mdash; that is, later to decide later. Google X has made it clear for what it can not do. Almost all enterprise labs are trying to improve the parent company's core products, but X is contrary to this tradition. Its task is to solve any major challenges in any field & mdash; only can not involve Google's core business.

When Tyler is at Google's helm (which now has been a subsidiary of Alphabet like Google), he has designed three elements for an ideal moon project: an important question, a radical approach, a viable path.

Proposals can come from anywhere, including Google X employees, Google executives and external scholars. But the grand concept has long been flooded - especially in Silicon Valley, the idea of ​​saving the world is no longer surprising - but the real breakthrough is very rare. So Taylor's first task is to pick the most promising ideas. He summoned a group of experts from different fields, like a group of nerds of justice, so that they quickly deal with hundreds of proposals, from which to select the right to balance the courage and reality of the idea. He called it "quick review & rdquo; team.

In the wilderness of thought, the task of quick assessment of the team is not drilling, but exploration. They are good at measuring terrain and looking for mineral deposits. It can be understood that the quick assessment team's job is to analyze the future of each potential project: what challenges will it face if this idea is successful? If it fails, what may be the reason?

Predicting which ideas to succeed is an art, which is a hot topic in the study of organizational behaviorists. In academic terms, it is sometimes called "creative prediction" and "rdquo ;." But what kind of team is best at predicting the most successful creations? Justin Berg, a professor at the Stanford Business School, tried to answer the question through a 2016 study of circus performances.

Berg found two circus professionals: the creators of the new performances and the evaluators of their managers. He has collected more than 150 circus videos and invited more than 300 circus creators and managers to watch the videos and then predict whether the show will be recognized by the audience. And then compared their reflection with the reflection of 13,000 ordinary viewers.

Berg found that the creator was too obsessed with his own concept. But the managers are too disgusted with the real novelty. Berger concluded that the most effective assessment team is a group of creators. "The lonely creator may fall in love with some less popular creatures," he told me, "but the panel will reject anything that is too new." The ideal combination is a team of creators, just like Google X's team. "The best assessors should be both athletes and coaches double identity & mdash; they first create, then manage, and then go to the creation. "They are a mixture." "said Berger.

Rich Devaul (Rich Devaul) is such a mixture. He is the head of the quick review team, but with many members, he is also involved in some important projects in Google X. He had studied the feasibility of a space elevator, the idea of ​​the rocket in the case without the use of materials to the satellite. He also envisioned an airship, without having to touch the ground can be transported to the material and human transport to the poor places.

"I was interested in cold fusion. "he said," why not? " & rdquo;

One of Dave's most obsessive studies is to connect about 4 billion people worldwide who can not use high-speed Internet. He regarded the Internet as a 21st century steam engine or grid, that this is to stimulate the long-term development of the economy platform technology. Dvor pioneered the development of cheap solar tablets. But the quick review team thought he was wrong. The world is most in need of hardware, but the channel.

The cost of laying cables and building towers in mountain and jungle is too high, and the signals from the ground signal towers can not cover the sparsely populated areas. Satellites are also unable to apply in poor areas because of cost problems. Devon needs some cheap stuff to fill the gap between the signal tower and the satellite. He thought of a balloon, a huge balloon.

This idea makes a lot of people feel ridiculous. "I felt that I could soon prove that it was impossible. Cliff l. Biffle, a computer scientist and quick review panel, says he has been working on Google X for six years. "but I totally failed." Really annoying. & rdquo;

The team thought the idea was ok: a balloon network was set up at a height of 13 miles and was then equipped with a solar-powered computer to spread the Internet signal to the rest of the world. This project is fully compliant with Google X requirements: the goal is ambitious, the program is radical and technically feasible. They gave it a name: Project Loon.

At first, the Loon team members thought the biggest difficulty was to maintain a network connection between the ground and the balloon. Dvor and Beaver bought several helium balloons, and installed some small Wi-Fi devices on them, flying them to the Dinosaur Point in the central valley. When the balloon fluttering with the air, Dvor and his colleagues drove a Subaru forest people all the way to follow the use of the antenna to capture the antenna signal. When the balloon drifted into the stratosphere, they travel like a madman along the St. Louis reservoir.

To their surprise, the network connection always exists. Dvor burst of ecstasy, he felt his victory in the grip. "I thought, then just control the balloon on the line." "he said," balloon is not a rocket. " & rdquo;

In a sense, he was right. Balloons are not rockets, but controlling balloons is more difficult than controlling rockets.

Start with the balloon. Each balloon is made of polyethylene material, and the size of a tennis court is similar to that of a tennis court. The balloon is hung with a small, lightweight computer that uses the same technology as the computer at the top of the signal tower, transmits the Internet signal through the radio transceiver, and obtains information from the ground base station. The computer system is powered by solar panels. The balloon can be floating at a height of 70,000 feet above the ground for several months. The cruise altitude of the civil aircraft is almost just in the middle of the ground with these balloons.

The atmosphere of the balloon is just as bad as an alien planet. The temperature at night dropped to 80 degrees Celsius, which was lower than the average nighttime temperature on Mars. In the daytime, the sun baked the computer, but because the air is too thin, the fan can not cool the motherboard. As a result, the engineers of the Loon team placed the computer in a specially crafted box with a plastic cooler, coated with a reflective white paint.

The computer system is guided by a ground data center, which can guide the direction of the balloon (to the northeastern direction of Lima!), But the stratosphere is not an orderly transportation network where the direction of the air is unpredictable. The stratosphere is because there are many levels of temperature and airflow that vary, and it is difficult to predict the direction of the stratospheric airflow.

Want to go to the top of a town, the balloon can not arbitrarily choose a height to start cruising. It must dive and rise thousands of feet, the different height of the wind sampling, until you find the right wind. So, the Loon team uses a set of balloons to keep over a larger range. When a balloon is drifting away, there will be another position to take over.

It is now four years since Loon's first flight in New Zealand, and they are negotiating with telecom companies around the world, especially in hard-to-build towers, such as Peru's lush jungles and mountains. Today, a balloon network that emits broadband signals floats in rural areas on the outskirts of Lima, transmitting telecom signals via telecom company Telefonica.

A recent study by Deloitte said that if the level of Internet access in Latin America, Africa and Asia is raised to the level of developed countries, more than $ 2 trillion in GDP will be created. Loon is far from fulfilling its vision of globalization, but only one percentage point in this increase will make it a multi-billion dollar business.

failure

Astro - Taylor likes to tell a fable: If a company has to let a monkey standing on a 10-foot-high base, recite the passage of Shakespeare's play. Where will you start from? He asked.

In order to show the early progress to the boss and the investor, many people will start from the base. This is the worst choice, Taylor said. When the base can be built. All the risks and learning processes come from the hard work of training the monkeys for the first time. This is called inside the Google X "MonkeyFirst" & mdash; & mdash; yes, in front of a # tag. It means "do the hardest thing first".

But most people do not want to do the hardest thing first. Most people want to be recognized and appreciated at work. Despite the fact that people often talk about failure (& ldquo; fast failure! More!!), But in fact, both in the economy or psychological, failure is not a good thing. In most companies, unsuccessful projects were discriminated against and employees were fired.

Silicon Valley is no exception. Google X initially looks like a curious paradise, where people can carefree tinkering, do not like listed companies because of the regular release of earnings and become frown. But it is also a place full of failure. Most of the projects that have been approved by the quick review team have failed, and some have even failed to do so in a few weeks, months, years.

In Google X, Taylor and his deputies had to build a unique emotional atmosphere: despite the inevitable failure, but still can let people with great excitement to bear the huge risk. Google X employees often refer to the concept of "safe and secure". When I heard the word, at first some of the retreat, it sounds like "new era" this empty argument. But it turns out that this is an important element of Google X culture, it is the same with Loon, are well thought out.

Kathy Hannun told me that when she joined in the spring of 2012, was the youngest employee of Google X. She was the first day to be pulled to meet with Taylor and other Google X executives. According to her memories, because of fear of showing their own no level, so she was just stammered to say a few words. But then, everyone in Google X has no "no level". Turner told her after the meeting, do not worry about making stupid comments or asking questions of ignorance. He said he would not embarrass her.

Hann is currently the CEO of Dandelion, a spin-off from Google X, which uses geothermal technology to supply heating, cooling and hot water to families in New York through renewable energy. "Over the years, I have done a lot of things that are neither sensible nor inexperienced, but Astro keeps his promise. "she told me. She said that this culture in the patience and high expectations between the realization of a delicate balance, making the two co-ordination.

Google X encourages its most successful employees to talk about innovative twists and turns. The spring of this year, the German engineer Andre Prager (Andre Prager) published a 25 minute speech on this topic at a company meeting, the members of the X and Google and tells the UAV team Project Wing.

He talked about his work on the project. The project believes that UAVs can become an important participant in the rapid development of the express economy. This idea also has disadvantages: drone attack dogs may be on the landing, and the elevated platform cost is also very high, so Wing engineers need to develop a set of not landing and no infrastructure solutions.

After the screening of hundreds of ideas, they settle on a set of automatic hinge system, equipped with a special spherical lifting hook, the hook will not be clothes, or anything else on the branches, but it can deliver the package.

In their speech, Prager and his team did not spend too much time on their breakthrough, but focuses on the many cardboard models they discarded during development. They and Taylor want to convey the lesson is that each product as the goal,

Because of the high probability of the latter, the financial rewards can still be obtained when the team gives up the projects that may fail. In recent years, Han led another group called Foghorn, they developed a way to turn seawater into fuel parity technology. The whole project seemed to be on track until oil prices plummeted in 2015, and they predicted that the fuel would not compete with conventional gasoline, leading to the unsustainable maintenance of the project.

In 2016, they explained in a detailed report that, despite the advances in science and technology, their technology was not economically feasible in the short run. They advocate closing the project. So, the whole team got a bonus.

Some people may think that these so-called failure bonus is not a benign incentive. But Taylor thinks it is wise to do so. For Google X, the worst case is many doomed projects in purgatory was shelved for many years, engulfed the staff and resources to reward those who can say.

Recently, Google X has gone further in openness, inclusiveness and celebration of failure. The summer of 2016, a man named Gina - Lu Dan (Gina Rudan) of Puerto Rican Americans and more than Google X talking to employees found that when they get stuck or cancel the project, it will bear a heavy psychological burden.

She put forward a proposal from the management of Google X from Mexico

In Google X, there's no more famously failed case than Google glasses, which is like a pair of glasses. Google glasses were considered to be the next generation of great hardware after smartphones. What's more, it's also been billed as a way to liberate people from the screen, making science and technology perfectly integrated with nature. (to critics), this is actually to make Google ads as close to the human eye as possible. )

Google held a dazzling conference in 2013, advertising in magazine. But soon, consumers because of frequent problems, and meaningless with hair standing on end and be abandoned. The last batch of fans have been posted

I find that Google X employees are willing to talk about the lessons they've learned from the failure of Google glasses. They often mention two lessons in conversation. First, they think Google glasses fail not because it's a bad consumer product, but because it's not a consumer product at all. Google X's engineering team wanted to send samples of Google glasses to thousands of technicians to get feedback. But with this product caused the attention of more and more big, the avid co-founder Sergei brin (Sergey Brin) under the leadership of Google launched a huge momentum more promotional activities, including a TED speech, with Diane von Furstenberg (Diane von Furstenberg) cooperation in a fashion show.

Photographers took pictures of some of the world's most famous celebrities wearing Google glasses, including Beyonce and Prince Charles, and Google seems to be ready to embrace it. Google at least implicitly promised a product, but sent it only a prototype product. (four years later, Google glasses became a tool for factory workers, a group of people who showed the greatest enthusiasm for the initial design. )

But Taylor and others also believe that the failure of Google glasses highlights the major structural flaws in Google X. It lacks a systematic approach to transforming scientific projects into commercial products, or fails to take full account of this process. So, Google X created a new stage called Foundry, which serves as a incubator for their scientific breakthroughs when their team develops business models. This department by Google veteran Phil Teng Obi (Obi Felten) for his title is: let the people responsible for the moon to contact the real world.

The latest entry into Foundry is an energy project called Malta, which aims to address one of the most existential problems on earth: can wind and solar energy replace coal?

Renewable energy is encouraging, because 3/4 of global carbon emissions from fossil fuels. However, when the wind is too small or the sky is dark, we have no clean technology, grid level low cost to store wind or solar.Malta has found a way to use molten salt. In the Malta system. The wind power plant power will be converted into extreme heat and cold heat. The heat will be stored in molten salt, and cold energy (known as internal

After that, the thermal engine will combine heat and cold energy according to the demand, convert it into electricity, and then send it back to the grid. Google X believes that salt based thermal storage is much cheaper than any other grid level storage technology in the world.

The team leader is Raj epte (Raj B -. Apte), he is an entrepreneur and engineer ebullience, before working at PARC. He believes that this project was recently entered Foundry like

The birth of Foundry makes me think, Google X is not so much a moon factory, it is better to say a moon like a 1940s studio. MGM, it employs a large number of talents, conceived many ideas out of bad ideas, cultivate the vitality with years of ideas, and the most promising products to the audience

Invention

Science and technology are wild. You need to be able to harness it through teamwork, and you have to be patient to control it, even in the best case, it will sneak away. Because of this, it is so difficult to do a good job, it is so difficult to do business innovation. That's why it's almost impossible to do two things like Google X at the same time.

This is undoubtedly the two predecessor of Google X

In 1970s, golden age as Baer laboratory ended its successor in the West rise. At Xerox PARC (now known as PARC, remove the Xerox prefix) laid the foundation, and another consists of scientists and engineers of the team for a hodgepodge of personal computing. Almost all the things associated with modern computer

According to legend, more than 20 year old Steve - Jobs (Steve Jobs) in 1979 caught a glimpse of the design of computer mouse prototype of PARC is realized, as long as a little change, can let it become part of the desktop computer.

In the story of technological progress, innovators are often portrayed as heroes. We can always see their names and trademarks in our houses and pockets. The inventor is unknown to the public geeks, their names hidden in a footnote (perhaps Thomas Edison and Elon Musk - such cross-border Daniel is a rare exception). Given the contemporary obsession with highly valued startups and super wealthy entrepreneurs, we may have forgotten the important role of inventors and scientific inventions.

Economists have been puzzled by the decline in productivity growth in the United States since the 70s of last century. From the aging of labor force to the rise of new monopoly, people give a variety of explanations. But John - fed economist Fernald (John Fernald) said, we can not exclude the lack of breakthrough inventions in external factors.

He pointed out that the notable exception to the decline in productivity growth after 1970 was from 1995 to 2004, when all businesses began to understand information technology and the internet:

The U.S. economy continues to gain IT breakthrough achievements, some breakthroughs can even be traced back to 50 years ago. But the next wave of brilliant come from? The Federal Government R & D expenditure in the government budget in the proportion dropped from nearly 12% in 1960 to 4% today

But listed companies do not really invest in experimental research. Their research and development focuses more on development than on research. A 2015 study at the Duke University found that it began in 1980,

The shrinking of scientific research in the United States has had a profound impact. In 2015, Massachusetts Institute of Technology for the scientific achievements of milepost type a year ago issued a scathing report, the birth of these achievements include the first aircraft landing comet spacecraft, the discovery of the Higgs boson and the fastest supercomputers in the world. But these are not the achievements of the American leadership. The first two organizations from Europe led by 10 years ago, and the third supercomputer described in China is made in china.

As the Massachusetts Institute of Technology researchers have said, many business breakthroughs in the past few years have relied on decades of invention, and most of these inventions have come from government investment. From 2012 to 2016, the United States was the world's leading oil producer. This is largely due to hydraulic fracturing experiments, which were funded by federally funded drilling technology after the oil crisis of 70s last century.

The recent surge in anticancer drugs and therapies can be traced back to the cancer war of 1971, but the report points out that the United States has fallen behind in a dozen research areas, including robotics, batteries and synthetic biology

Even the federal government is slowly ignoring this kind of research. The White House's budget proposal this year cuts the National Institutes of health funding by 5 billion 800 million dollars, or 18%. You know, it's a jewel in the field of biomedical research in the United states. The White House proposes to reduce funding for disease research, abolish federal climate change scientific research, and revoke the prestigious Department of energy ARPA-E.

The Trump administration seems to think that the private sector is better equipped to finance disruptive technology. But this view is ignoring the historical facts. Almost all the technological progress factors in the Internet era come from government funded scientists or laboratories, and they are intent on getting out of the vagaries of the free market.

As the basic unit of electronic hardware, the transistor was invented in the Baer laboratory, and is in the government approved monopoly. The first model of the Internet was developed by the U. S. government's advanced research projects agency, now called DARPA. In 1970s, several scientists in the agency envisioned connecting their computers through a global network to Xerox PARC.

In this respect, the methodical invention of Google X is one of its most admirable qualities

Another problem

Harvard Business School professor, "progress" principle (The Progress Principle) co-author Teresa Amabile (Teresa Amabile) said that any one in high risk of the success of the project organization has five basic characteristics.

option, value

The fifth is the only factor that Google X can't control: the financial and business autonomy that is not constrained by the corporate headquarters. This raises an inescapable question: if Google X can't give birth to the next Google, how long will Alphabet provide support for it?

As the co-founder of Google, brin and Larry X (Larry Page) apparently favor Google. Paige once said that one of his childhood heroes was Nicola Tesla Nikola, a learned Serbia American who paved the way for the invention of air conditioning and remote control through his own experiments.

Paige said in an interview in 2008:

9 years later, the story seems to be a disturbing critique of Google X: because of its lack of revenue, it's more like Tesla's lab than Edison's factory. In fact, what I hear most often from Silicon Valley entrepreneurs and scholars about Google X is that their amazing investment hasn't caused a sensation yet.

Some of the Google X projects have been fully integrated into Google. Google X's artificial intelligence project is currently providing momentum for some Google products, such as Google's search and translation software. There are some other big technology may also close at hand: in May this year, Morgan Stanley analyst told investors, 7 years ago by Google X hatch unmanned company Waymo for $70 billion, more than the market value of Ford and general motors.

The future of driverless cars is uncertain

More importantly, Google X's way of gaining benefits through parent companies may have nothing to do with its own gains and losses. Although Google seems idealistic, it is a mature company whose revenues in 2017 may exceed $100 billion. To expand Google's core business, sales and marketing personnel are required to perform routine tasks, such as selling search keywords to insurance companies. The work is not what is wrong, but highlights the Silicon Valley words.

Google X sends signals to and outside the company: Although Google's essence has become an advertising company, page and Brin are still cultivating the idealism they stuck with at the beginning of the creation of Google. Some business scholars believe that Google's dominant position in the search advertising market is almost invulnerable, so it should be regarded as monopoly. In June this year, the European Union imposed a $2 billion 700 million antitrust fine against Google because it promoted its shopping site at the expense of competitors.

Alphabet may use the Google X project to prove that it is a benevolent giant, willing to use its own profits to create inventions that benefit mankind, just like AT

All of these indicate that the soft welfare and theoretical value of Google X can only go to this end. At some point, Alphabet must determine whether the failure of X, the theory of experimentation and invention are practical. A few days later steeped in idealistic Google X, I still think, whether Google X insisted on the moon will cause it to miss the most often leads to moderate innovation value of the products.

I propose a tricky question to astro - Taylor: if you join a quick review meeting in mid 90s, some people say he wants to each page according to the ranking of influence. He would support this idea? Taylor see through me: I mean PageRank the final software development, has now become the Google. He said:

Then, I let him think that year is 2003, a Google X employee University classmates proposed digital. I mean Facebook, Google is currently the biggest digital advertising in the field of competitors. Taylor said he rejected the idea of probability is greater.

Google X is given a dual task, on the one hand to solve major problems, on the other hand, the next Google. Taylor believes that these two goals are closely linked. However, both as a platform, or from the perspective of property value, Facebook has been able to challenge with Google, but it is in the process of growing up at the first It is quite common for the target. It's not as ambitious as landing on the moon, it's one step at a time.

Modern innovation advocates the rapid development of products and the rapid creation of profits, but Google X has always resisted this idea silently. Whether it's good or bad, it's full of admiration for the long simmering period of new technology.

F Arnaul told me that technology is a big tree. However, the seeds of invention and the fruits of commercial innovation are two distinct skills, often in the hands of different organizations, which have been isolated for years.

A few weeks later, I repeated this sentence to several employees of Google X

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