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Behind the 5G voting door: What happened to Lenovo?

via:CnBeta     time:2018/5/19 22:31:54     readed:114

The contents of the open letter kept scrolling back and forth on the screen. The blue background was lined with white characters. It was particularly eye-catching in the environment of the dark clouds.

At this time, in a meeting room of Lenovo Group, No. 6 Chuangye Road, Shangdi Information Industrial Base, Haidian District, Lenovo’s department is holding a staff mobilization meeting for this event. "It's quite awkward." Speaking of the views on this matter, a Lenovo employee told reporters. At the one-and-a-half-hour mobilization meeting, the department leaders took the lead to sort out the voting process at the 3GPP meeting that year and also reflected on the business development of Lenovo Group.

The leaders were emotionally excited and the old employees were filled with indignation. “I work hard at my job and I'm conscientious and hard-working. I was so tainted that I became a traitor. I really couldn’t accept it.” "Lenovo's product strategy for the past few years needs to be reconsidered, but it has risen to the height of traitors. This is definitely something I do not accept," said the employee.

Not only Lenovo employees, even Liu Chuanzhi could not have expected it. In 2016, the 3GPP voting meeting will be suddenly exposed to fermentation in the social platform after a year and a half. This will push Lenovo into the whirlpool of public opinion and even snaking the “national thief”. hat of. When the reporter left the taxi from the headquarters of the company, the driver of the express train was chanting. "I heard Liu Shizhi was irritated when he was peddled."

"We did not care at first. This is purely a technical issue." On May 18th, in Room B of Lenovo Beiyan Building located in Shangdi, Lenovo Research Institute's 202 conference room, Lenovo Group Vice President and Lenovo Research Institute Technology. Wang Yan, general manager of the Strategy and Innovation Platform, told reporters.

"Polling door"

Starting in early May, related articles on "5G standard voting, Lenovo long code casting to Qualcomm, and short code abstentions not investing in Huawei" were shed on the social networking platforms such as Shuimu BBS, Zhihu, Baidu Post Bar and so on. The records of the 3GPP meeting in that year stated that at the 3GPP conference in 2016, “5G channel data code voting, domestic manufacturers collective Huawei (L+P, with two solutions, Qualcomm’s L plus Huawei’s P), Lenovo’s acquisition The Motorola stationed Qualcomm together (as long as Qualcomm had a plan). In the end, Huawei did not vote for the data code. The article said that "Lenovo's two votes contributed."

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a standardization organization established in December 1998. As the most influential communications standardization agency in the world, 3GPP can bring together upstream and downstream manufacturers in the communications industry chain around the world to discuss communication standards. And reached a consensus, "a wide range of manufacturers will participate in communications companies, terminal enterprises, etc., the meeting to achieve consensus." Huang Ying told the reporter that the whole process of the follow-up vote, "3GPP's decision-making is based on the consensus mechanism Rather than the voting mechanism.” Huang Ying is the vice president of Lenovo Group, Lenovo Research Institute of Enterprise Services Cloud Computing Research Office, Wireless Research Laboratory Leader.

Xie Yushan, research fellow of Jibang Tuobei Industrial Research Institute, stated that 3GPP defines three scenarios: eM-BB (such as 3D/Ultra high-definition video and other mobile broadband services), mMTC (such as large-scale Internet of Things business) and URLLC (if no Drivers, industrial automation, and other services that require low delay and high reliability connections will follow. The follow-up will also determine the channel coding scheme under the URLLC scenario, and finally decide the mMTC scenario.

"More like the democratic system of Athens in ancient Greece, voting is a misunderstanding." Wang Hao added. Therefore, it is not a case that a company that has voted in favour of a particular bill wins, nor does it assign the proportion of votes according to the weight of the company. If there is a strong objection among the parties in the decision, it needs to be discussed and discussed again until a consensus is reached. At the meeting, he did not abstain from voting.

Two years ago, the trigger for the retrospective event was the 3rd meeting of the 3GPP in 2016 on the future standard specification of 5G technology, namely 86 meetings, 86b meetings and 87 meetings.

The reporter found the meeting record of August 2016 from the official website of 3GPP. The 3GPP conference held in Sweden was a proposal meeting for the 5G coding technology solution. During the meeting, a total of three programs were proposed. The first option is LDPC. Qualcomm, Samsung, ZTE, and Xiaomi all support this solution. The second solution is Polar. The supporters include Huawei, Hass, China Unicom, Spreadtrum, Deutsche Telekom, and Vodafone. The third option is the Turbo solution. At this stage, Lenovo and Motorola did not make a statement.

According to Xie Yushan, a research associate of Jibang Tuobei Industrial Research Institute, 5G network technologies include network slicing, Mobile Edge Computing (MEC), control bearer separation and network function reconstruction, and key technologies for wireless transmission, including large-scale antennas ( Multi-input Multi-output (MIMO), millimeter wave (Millimeter Wave), new multiple access technology, Carrier Aggregation, Ultra-Dense Network, and advanced coding technologies. Among them, advanced coding techniques are for 5G air interface coding and modulation technologies, including LDPC codes, Polar codes, modulation methods, etc. (Turbo code loses in the first round of competition. Basically, the general trend has gone, that is, the 5G coding dispute eventually evolved into Polar codes and LDPC codes. Competition).

The LDPC (Data Channel Coding) code is dominated by U.S. companies (such as Qualcomm, etc.), and the Polar (signaling channel coding) code is dominated by Chinese companies such as Huawei. Currently, the Polar code is a 5GMBB scenario control channel coding scheme on the 5G core standard.

In the 86b meeting, Lenovo appeared for the first time. At the meeting, 29 companies including Samsung, Qualcomm, Nokia, and Lenovo voted to support LDPC as a separate coding scheme. Huawei, HiSilicon, China Unicom, Vivo, ZTE, Xiaomi and other 27 companies voted to support the Polar code as the coding standard for the 5G data channel. Different companies have also explained their own coding proposals. For example, Sony proposed that the LDPC coding method is more mature, especially in high throughput, while the Polar code is not mature enough. Similarly, Huawei and Hass also explained their own Polar code.

The difference from the 86th meeting was that there were three rounds of games in 86b meetings. Huang Ying recalled that in the first round, 29 companies including Qualcomm, Samsung, Lenovo, and Shanghai Bell supported the LDPC program, and 27 companies including Huawei and Xiaomi supported the Polar program. As no consensus was reached, the meeting entered the second round.

In the second round of the Lisbon conference, the compromise proposed four solutions: LDPC only, Polar only, LD-PC+Polar, LDPC+Turbo. Among them, Lenovo chose the LDPC-only solution. Huawei chose Polar, Huawei, Xiaomi, and most other Chinese companies to choose LDPC+Polar, and a few companies chose LDPC+Turbo. However, the differences still existed and the third round of discussions was entered.

In the third round, a long-short code scheme, namely, LDPC only, Polar only, LDPC long code + Po-lar short code, LDPC long code + Turbo short code, was proposed. The chairman of the meeting asked the member companies to express their opinions in reverse, and they voted in disagreement with the proposal. This voting method is also to achieve consensus more efficiently. Participating voting companies did not disapprove of long codes using LDPC solutions, but they insisted on short codes. At this point, the hour hand has been pointed to 3 am. The chairman of the meeting announced that it will set the long code first. The data channel short code and control channel will be discussed next time, but he emphasized that it must be determined next time.

The story continued to develop and it reached the 87th meeting in November 2016. The meeting must decide on the coding scheme used on short codes and control channels. According to the minutes of the meeting, in one of the proposals, there are 57 companies supporting Huawei's Polar code as a short code, including Huawei, Hass, Alibaba, Lenovo, Motorola, Xiaomi, Vivo, and Ericsson, Qualcomm, Nokia, etc. 14 such as Samsung opposed the proposal. As to why the LDPC is still used in the short code and the long code in the end, the opposition of the 14 companies is very strong, and the 3GPP is also a meeting based on the consensus mechanism. Therefore, under the compromised communication, all companies Finally, they agreed to adopt LDPC coding scheme on the data channel short code. At the same time, all companies also agreed to use Polar code on the control channel. "This can also be seen as a strategy. We concede on the data channel and they will not oppose Polar on the control channel," said Wang Hao.

Therefore, in an article from the user knows Fan Xing. The statement in xfanplus's article "5G Standard Voting, Lenovo's Long Code Casting to Qualcomm, Short Code Abstaining from Power Casting Huawei" does not correspond to the facts.

This article said, "5G channel data code voting, domestic manufacturers collective Huawei (L + P, with two programs, Qualcomm's L plus Huawei's P), Lenovo will take the acquisition of Motorola Qualcomm (as long as a set of solutions for Qualcomm Huawei's rival ZTE took the lead in voting for Huawei, friends OPPO Xiaomi vi-vo, etc. Even Taiwanese companies all voted for Huawei. In fact, at the 86b conference, only Huawei supports Polar code as the only data channel coding scheme. Even if Lenovo does not participate in the voting, LDPC is undisputed as one of the coding schemes. It has acquired companies other than the Huawei one. The support, and after compromise, eventually all companies agree that LDPC is a long-code solution for data channel coding. Second, according to records, Lenovo and Motorola did vote for the Polar code, not the abstention of the text. As for the 86b and 87th meetings, LDPC eventually won the data channel. This was not due to the difference between Lenovo and Motorola, but was the result of a compromise based on a consensus mechanism.

“At the #86bis conference in Lisbon, Lenovo and Motorola Mobility supported Samsung (rather than Netcom’s Qualcomm) to take the lead in adopting LDPC as the only encoding scheme for the eMBB data channel due to their own technical and patent reserves. But Lenovo’s position was not The results of the meeting played a decisive role. The two votes of Lenovo and Motorola Mobile had no real effect on the loss of the Polar code on the long channel of the data channel.” Lenovo released its official microblog on May 16 to the 5G standard in the 3GPP conference. In the voting process, I said.

As stated in the statement, "Lenovo and Motorola Mobility support Samsung (rather than Netcom's Qualcomm) to use LDPC as the only encoding scheme for eMBB data channel because of its own technology and patent reserves." Fu Liang told reporters that different The standards, or different programs, are actually different for the use of various resources. Different companies may invest in R&D in different directions. The adaptation environment for different coding schemes may not be the same, and there are different patent fees. Fu Liang has worked in the communications industry for many years and is a well-known independent TMT analyst.

The rise of this incident to the height of nationalism made it even more difficult for him to understand. "The investment criteria are not related to patriotism." Fu Liang said that 5G voting is a process of repeated debates. The ultimate goal is to form a globally uniform standard. This standard is neither China nor the United States or any other country. It will not be Huawei or Qualcomm. Both LDPC and Polar have been proposed long ago. Even Qualcomm and Huawei, which are called two camp representatives, support both LDPC and Polar. Due to different technologies, in fact, there is no objection to the adoption of LD-PC on the data channel long code. This is a major breakthrough in the formation of a unified 5G standard globally.

As for why Lenovo chose the Polar code as the coding scheme for the short code and control channel in the second ballot, Huang Ying explained that this is indeed based on the overall situation, and although Lenovo's technical patent reserves on the Polar code are insufficient, it is also similar. In the future, Polar code technology will be researched and developed. “This is a new coding scheme, which means more opportunities,” Huang Ying said.

“The eMBB scenario channel coding scheme uses the Polar code as a control channel scheme. For Chinese operators, it is only when they are selected that they can play a key role in their own industry development. In the future, they will have more input chips, components and equipment. It has the advantage that product R&D has more impact, and taking Huawei as an example, in the future, it will break through key links such as core chips and high-frequency devices (gradually mastering 5G terminals, chips, components, etc.), and currently Huawei is the third largest in the world. Leading mobile phone industry and communication equipment will help support the development of 5G technology and the establishment of an industrial ecological chain.” Xie Yushan, research fellow of Jibang Tuobei Industrial Research Institute stated that 5G technology puts forward higher requirements for channel coding and needs to support a wider range of code blocks. And more coding rates. With the success of the Polar code in the eMBB scenario, it represents the rise of China's telecommunications industry and its international status has improved significantly.

"Extinguishing effect"

In early May, this incident two years ago was inexplicably revealed and Lenovo was involved in the whirlwind of public opinion. In the Huituo big lyrics analysis platform, the search for "Lenovo + country" keyword, found that the earliest article is a post on May 10 Shuimun community, "in the 5G standard vote, the evidence of Lenovo's traitorous country has been practical! ". The reporter’s earliest post with “5G Standard+Lenovo” on the sensational platform of Hui Tuosi was a post on May 5th in the “Dragon’s Sky” forum, which called “To get me ( Internet users refer to Lenovo. In the 5G long code, two Qualcomm votes were cast and a short code was abstained. ZTE took the initiative to cast two Huawei votes in the short code. Qualcomm and Huawei are the two main competing programs, but neither of the two posts elaborated on the reason for voting. Until May 10, the last article known as "5g standard voting, Lenovo long code voted for Qualcomm, short code abstentions did not cast Huawei" article appears, the article has been deleted, but still can be reproducedwebsiteI saw it. The paper showed the voting records in the 3GPP meeting, saying that Huawei had lost with a slight disadvantage and had not succeeded. Lenovo's two votes contributed.

This article in the media's boost of public opinion indeed "contribution", and Lenovo did not "explain" in the next 5 days, and its response speed is even worse than Huawei. On May 11th, Lenovo's official Weibo transferred to Huawei's statement in support of Lenovo. Huawei stated in official Weibo that it would like to thank Lenovo and its Motorola Mobility team for voting on the Polar code solution in the 3GPP standard voting conference held by the 3GPP. . Until May 16, an internal letter of Liu Chuanzhi, Yang Yuanqing, and Zhu Linan once again pushed public opinion to a climax. The letter stated that during the entire voting process, Lenovo Group representatives followed two principles: one is basic, and one must maintain The interests of the enterprise; there is a higher principle is to pay attention to the overall situation. What is the overall situation? The overall situation is the overall interests of the country and the development of the industry.

The leaders of Lenovo expressed their indignation in the letter. “Brothers and sisters, it’s time for us to stand up and stand out. If you don’t allow tens of thousands of employees to be self-protected, we’re still doing business. We’re just a bunch of waste.” Lenovo's cadres must take active actions and all colleagues should actively offer advice and suggestions. They must unite with one another, and share the same enmity and swear to win this Lenovo honor battle! Even Lenovo Group is mobilizing its own employees to post messages on the Internet to clarify. Less than 10 hours after the open letter was issued, Liu Chuanzhi recorded another audio talk about the matter.

From May 16th to 17th, Lenovo’s official Weibo statement issued a clarification on the voting event of the year. However, statistics on the Huitansi lyrics monitoring platform statistics show that the two days were related to online communication events. Nearly 1 times.

“The outside world is like pressure cookers, and entertainment information is under different pressures, but some information is particularly stressful, so it is easy to get rid of it.” Chen Peng, director of the Department of Communication at Nankai University, told reporters, “The core technology The chip issue and trade issues have become a very big focus of public opinion, and the pressure on the public opinion environment is very heavy. Therefore, anything related to this issue will inspire our association or curiosity, especially when it comes to such national feelings. All have built up pressure and once they touched on these two points, one is whether the technical core is mastered, one is whether the national feelings are hurt, and some external environment pressures easily trigger the pain point.” Chen Peng said that other than With its own internal characteristics, this incident is to put together two very famous brands in our country. These two brands have a certain appeal. For example, Huawei's mobile phones and Lenovo's computers are all used by us. Therefore, it is particularly easy to narrow the relationship between consumers and the information themselves. The content of information itself will create some contradictions, which will instigate the pressure on the two media.

According to the public opinion platform, as Lenovo began to clarify, on the 16th and 17th, negative reports on the incident began to increase. “Huawei Legend has issued a clarification that it may cause a second upsurge, but it is unfavorable. This is called “fire-extinguishing effect” in communication science. It is a wind blowing, the wind stops, the flames swing, and it may grow bigger. Looking at the clarification, I feel that there is a problem inside.” Chen Peng told reporters that when there is such false news and false news, not only enterprises face this problem, the community must participate in governance, so as to make information negative effects or It hurts.

For Lenovo's public relations crisis, Fu Liang said, “I always think that misunderstandings provide a good opportunity for publicity. In the 5G standard vote, Lenovo did not seize, weak, and evade questioning responses, resulting in sensational fermentation. Lenovo's full force may indeed reverse the spread to a certain extent, but it does not really eliminate doubt."

Lenovo's 5G layout

Regardless of whether there is a conspiracy theory, Lenovo has indeed reached a Kaner, which is related to the environmental changes in the entire industry. According to the records of Lenovo's 2017 and 2018 interim results, the company stated in the second quarter 2017 fiscal year performance press conference that for the personal computers and smart devices in China, although the market slowed down, it hoped to adopt more innovations. Products, launch and expansion of sales channels, reply to business momentum.

In May this year, the company set up a smart device group to merge PCSC and PCG mobile phones. In fact, changes in the industry environment began to appear from 2015. According to ZDC statistics, in the 2015 China notebook market, Lenovo led the brand list with about 30% market attention (from the ZDC report of the Internet Consumer Research Center), but the overall market , Market research firm Gartner report shows that the third quarter of the year global PC shipments decreased by 7.7% year-on-year, according to the agency data, in 2016 the global pc manufacturers unit shipments, Lenovo is still ranked in the market share One position, but it dropped by 2.4% compared to 2015.

At the same time, Lenovo has already had a layout on 5G. Huang Ying said: "Lenovo's layout in 5G is still very global and technically in-depth. In addition to patents, we also have a layout on the product. Lenovo is actually the industry should be said to be the most contact with consumer society, The most complete company, not only has a computer phone tablet, but also has wearables now, and we hope to have more various smart devices in the 5G era."

In an article in the Lenovo Institute official website, Lenovo detailed the layout of Lenovo on 5G. The article said that Lenovo Research Institute will further study the core technologies of 5G and future mobile communications, mainly including enhanced mobile broadband communications (eMBB), large-scale machine communications (mMTC), and ultra-reliable and low-latency communications (URLLC). High-performance algorithms and systems. Actively participate in the formulation of 3GPP LTE/5G technical specifications and establish Lenovo 5G independent intellectual property rights. In the future, Lenovo will master 5G key technologies in the era of smart Internet of things, form a competitive core patent pool, and create more abundant experiences and services for users in more vertical industries.

(Intern Zhang Yanzheng also contributed to this article)

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