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Text / Liu Ren
Ni Guangnan was born in Zhenhai County, Zhejiang Province, in August 1939. After graduating from Southeast University in 1961, he worked at the Institute of Computing, Chinese Academy of Sciences. For decades, he has been engaged in the research and development of computers and their applications. He has participated in the development of several large-scale computers designed by China, and he first applied the association function in the input of Chinese characters. From 1981 to 1983, he was employed as a visiting fellow of the Canadian National Research Institute to work in Canada. The first chief engineer of Lenovo Group presided over the development of Lenovo's Chinese character system and the Lenovo series of microcomputers. He successively won the first prize of national scientific and technological progress in 1988 and 1992. In 1994, he was selected as the first academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. Now he is a member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, vice chairman of the China Chinese Information Society, and researcher of the Lenovo Group.
The biggest misunderstanding of Ni Guangnan in the industry is that Ni Guangnan left Lenovo and why he left Lenovo. In fact, Ni Guangnan did not leave Lenovo. He is still a research fellow of Lenovo. Ni Guangnan's logo on the business card is still Lenovo's Logo, but he is no longer in the post of chief engineer. As early as December 1984, when Wang Shuhe, Liu Chuanzhi, and Zhang Zuxiang (general manager and deputy general manager of the calculation company) invited Ni Guangnan to join the calculation company (predecessor of Lenovo), Ni Guangnan considered the day and finally answered: “If you can Let me concentrate on scientific research and do not participate in any administrative affairs. The company is seriously responsible for the distribution of Hanka products and I can go to your company. "Ng Guangnan is now not in the position of the chief engineer, freeing up air and keeping track of the trends of some of the latest technologies. Is it the long-cherished wish of Ni Guangnan for many years?"
The retired Ni Guangnan also served as an advisor to several local governments to assist local development of high-tech industries. He thinks this is also his “inalienable” matter.
In relation to Lenovo, Ni Guangnan said that since Lenovo has been 14 years old and has feelings for Lenovo, “Nothing will be done against Lenovo at any time.” When Ni Guangnan explained his reason for retiring from the position of the chief engineer, he only said one sentence: "For the benefit of Lenovo." ”
Looking back at that time, there was always a lot of emotion. Ni Guangnan said that his biggest contribution to Lenovo is to develop Lenovo Hanka and Lenovo microcomputers.
From Lenovo Hanka to Lenovo Computer
Ni Guangnan at Lenovo Microcomputer Production Base
Since the 70th century, Ni Guangnan, who works at the Institute of Computing Science, has begun two directions of research: one is pattern recognition, and the other is Chinese character information processing. Ni Guangnan then positioned his research direction on Chinese character information processing because he believed that Computer's translation into a computer was not appropriate. "This kind of translation is apt to cause people to misunderstand that computer is only used for scientific computing. Actually, computers are more used as information processing. Scientific computing is only one aspect." "Gu Guangan at the time realized that Chinese people must use computers to process information and must allow computers to handle Chinese characters easily."
In 1979, Ni Guangnan and Geng Naigang together with their research group developed the “Chinese Characters Information Processing Experiment System” on the 111 mainframes produced by the Institute of Computing Technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. They equip the mainframe with a Chinese character display, keyboard and printer so that they can process Chinese characters. Ni Guangnan often personally held a light pen, a partial radical plus a radical to give people how to enter Chinese characters into the computer.
The most proud of Ni Guangnan is that his light pen input method has a associative function. After entering the word, the word "country" will be automatically associated with the candidate. "People can read the above to know the following. Since the computer has intelligence, why can't it make people think like people and help people infer the following? ” This is the origin of the Lenovo input method.
Ni Guangnan's other research direction pattern recognition also produced results, also in 1979. Ni Guangnan presided over the "handwritten text recognition system", including the scanner, all the hardware and software of this system are Ni Guangnan themselves to do. Although this system was done and won the award, it was later abandoned by Ni Guangnan. “Under the conditions of computer hardware and software at that time, OCR was too advanced. Despite thinking a lot of ways, the system could perform but it was not practical. Because hardware prices are too high, software capabilities are not enough. ”
Ni Guangnan’s pattern recognition and graphics studies earned him the opportunity to work at the National Institute of Canada. In 1981, Ni Guangnan was invited by the Canadian National Institute to visit the world every year. A visiting researcher (VRO) came to Canada. In Canada two years, Ni Guangnan learned the latest microprocessor technology and C language (Lenovo Kanji system was written in C at the beginning), and more importantly, he broadened his horizons and realized that the computer will be widely used. The computer is no longer an academic thing. Ni Guangnan believes that going to Canada is an important turning point in his academic career and his career.
When Ni Guangnan went to Canada in 1981, his salary at the Institute was more than 70 yuan a month, and his income in Canada was nearly 100 times that of 70 yuan. However, in 1983 Ni Guangnan returned to China from Canada. “I once saw a beautiful window in the shoe store displaying Italian leather shoes, British leather shoes and American leather shoes. At the door of the door, a pile of cloth shoes was piled up in a mess on a basket. It read: $1.99 Pair of picking. I picked up a pair of shoes and printed MadeinChina. Later, I have successively seen some products made in China, not light industrial products or agricultural products, and they are often the lowest. "For this reason, Ni Guangnan decided to return home to do high-tech products and sell them abroad." "Can't call foreigners look down too much." ”
Liu Chuanzhi once pointed out: "Ni Guangnan returned from Canada. He could have been engaged in the world's cutting-edge pattern recognition task. He has come up to a level close to the world's advanced level." But Ni Guangnan chose the Chinese character processing technology that has the most application value and the most urgent need in the market. "This is Ni Guangnan's vision."
In 1983, Ni Guangnan returned to the Institute of Computing and used the Z80 chip to develop the LX80 Lenovo graphics microcomputer. This is a complete 8-bit machine independently designed except the Z80 chip. This model was once transferred to three factories in Dalian, Guangzhou, and Sichuan, producing a total of 600 units.
However, when Ni Guangnan saw the IBM PC/XT with a hard disk available, he saw the development of CCDOS by Yan Yuanchao on a PC (although soft Chinese characters display Chinese characters very slowly, and the LX80 can display thousands of Chinese characters per second, printing is very beautiful, Have your own Lenovo input method). Ni Guangnan was determined to give up the LX80 and was determined to concentrate the LX80's technology into a Hanka on the PC. “Technically speaking, it seems to be going backwards because the entire system of the LX80 is what we do. On the PC, we only display and input and output parts of Chinese characters. One machine becomes a Hanka, but we must keep up with the world. Trend: The PC is a 16-bit machine and is an industry standard. Different from product research and scientific research, the first element of a product is whether the market can accept it and does not care about the level of scientific research. The computer is not an academic thing, it is an industry. "This is Ni Guangnan's vision." Liu Chuanzhi said that Ni Guangnan is a fake nerd. Ni Guangnan believes that "real nerds" and "pretend nerds" only one point: "Real nerds" to make a result will lock it in the bookcase and then do something else, and "false nerds "Understand, this is only the first game of the relay race, but also passed to the second stick, and the third rod is going on."
The LX80 is ported to the PC. The software must be transferred from CP/M to DOS. The hardware must concentrate the original LX80 on Hanka. While Ni Guangnan’s development team was working stressfully on the transplant, Wang Shuhe, Liu Chuanzhi, and Zhang Zuxiang found Ni Guangnan. To mention the relationship between himself and the founders of the three associations, Ni Guangnan was somewhat excited: “I and Zhang Zuxiang were close friends when they switched from 119 machine in 1962; and Liu Chuanzhi was from 1974 to 1975.” The classmates of the school did a good job in a research room and had a very good relationship. Wang Shuhe worked in the business office and was my old superior, so they can trust each other. "In addition, during the transfer of LX80, Ni Guangnan also felt that the state-owned enterprise mechanism was slow to move. Therefore, Ni Guangnan readily joined the company. Because, before "Shenzhen Industry and Trade Center" and ICT support Ni Guangnan to transplant LX80 to PC into Lenovo Hanka's work, and later, the computing company gave them some compensation, making Hanka become their own exclusive products. .
In the Spring Festival of 1985, Ni Guangnan’s development team took a hard work and made a sample card. “Comrades in charge of production, sales, and service at the company made joint efforts.” In April, the first Lenovo Hanka (type 1) was launched. Products, which are three cards interconnected with flat cables. "Because we have to hurry and the market does not wait for people, we have reduced the workload to the minimum and only done the most necessary. At that time, it was too late to shrink three cards into one slot." Although the three cards are not very good in the process, they are very powerful. "Gao Guangnan emphasized that an important principle in the development of high-tech products is to put the time to market first. “Now look at a type of card is an ugly duckling, but without it, there will be no future type 2, type ……. After the launch of the Type I card, many users such as Shougang, the State Sports Commission, Beijing Jeep Company and so on all gave praise. ”
The real test for Lenovo Hanka was the Chinese character system match held in Beijing in January 1986. "At that time, there was a new era of Hanka, Second Gunners developed Hanka, CCDOS, etc.", the title is to edit the file, do the data table, sort, search, make a word, and then print. In order to be safe, Ni Guangnan personally operated the machine. "Because I'm the most familiar, I'll be the first to hand in and get the highest score."
“ Visible, our & ldquo; ugly duckling & rsquo; is better than others' ugly duckling & rsquo; still stronger. In July 1986, Lenovo Hanka received the Application Support System Award from the State Council’s Electronic Rejuvenation Leading Group. In August 1986, the second type card, which only occupied one slot, was introduced. Hanka went forward with such a model and then a model and went through 10 years. ”
Why did Lenovo Hanka fail to do a word processing system like WPS, and eventually, was Founder Super Hanka taking a large market in the early 1990s? "From 1988, my main focus was on the development of Lenovo microcomputers in Hong Kong. Lenovo Hanka's software 2.17 was responsible for my previous version, and 3.0 was responsible for young people. On the guiding principle of software design, we focused our attention on system software at that time. We hadn't kept up with the application software and had a team missing. Later, we developed Lenovo Office and moved our focus to application software. However, this plan directly competes with Microsoft and it is late in time. In these decisions, we have said that we have not done enough research on the market because we have all discussed together in the big direction. Therefore we cannot blame the young people. I have to bear the main responsibility for this. ”
After 1988, Ni Guangnan's heart moved from Lenovo Hanka to Lenovo. “I saw the future of the Chinese character platform technology. I've been to Microsoft three times and I've had dinner with Gates. I know more about Microsoft. Microsoft has made multi-language support a decision for the company. If we go back to the Chinese platform, it will be very difficult. The Chinese system will only play a role in adding value, and it will be difficult to become a Chinese language platform. "This is Ni Guangnan's vision."
In 1988, Ni Guangnan led a capable team to come to Hong Kong and Shenzhen to prepare for Lenovo's PC. "Calculating the people I came from is very good for some of my past computers. These computers have also contributed to some important projects in the country, but they are all two. So we have always had a desire to make Chinese people Can use our own design and production of computers. ”
Ni Guangnan first developed a motherboard in Hong Kong. “Because the motherboard is easier to do than the whole machine, it is easy to sell. "But the first batch of 2000 motherboards that Lenovo exported had faced the danger of returning, and finally Ni Guangnan came up with a solution in the crisis." However, this experience made Ni Guangnan very nervous when the first batch of Lenovo's 286 microcomputers were launched at home. "Fear of problems." Fortunately, Lenovo 286 is very stable. A user in Beijing's Qianmen area caught fire and changed the shape of the Lenovo 286's casing. However, it was turned on again and it was operating normally! This makes the company proud from top to bottom. ”
"Different from today's PCs, at the time, each PC was different in terms of circuit design and performance. The speed of the Lenovo 286 was 1.6 times that of the AST286. Its main frequency reached 16M, while the AST only had 10M. Tested with the speed measurement software SPEED2.0, the AST286 is 16M and the Lenovo 286 has reached 21M. "In 1989, Lenovo 286 made its debut at the Hannover Fair and entered the international market. In 1992, Lenovo's motherboards accounted for 2% of the world market share. Ni Guangnan's wish to see China's cloth shoes in Canada was realized.
What is Lenovo? Everyone is very clear, needless to say, and Lenovo why? The argument is not the same. This is not surprising, because no matter how profound theories are only an explanation of the facts, and interpretation is always second. The most important thing is that the fact that Lenovo has become China's largest computer company is more important than any profound explanation about why Lenovo is.
Any interpretation of facts is based on the position, age, and angle of the interpreter. From the point of view of Ni Guangnan, he hopes to fully understand the concept of "Lenovo starts with 200,000 yuan." "This statement certainly reflects the fact that the share capital is 200,000 yuan, and it also reflects Lenovo's development speed, but it is best not to understand that Lenovo started with this 200,000 yuan, because the company owned intangible assets when it started." Played a bigger role. "Someone wrote a book mistakenly saying that Lenovo Hanka was developed by the company in 1986. In this way, from 1985 to 1986 after the company was founded, it became a product without a fist." The author then explained that in the first year, the company’s 3 million turnover and 700,000 profits were made by the company’s 500 machine inspection machines, training, maintenance & rsquo; "This writing has enabled us to research and develop the Institute for the past 10 years so that the company's employees will fight out of a type of Hanka, so that the direct and indirect benefits of a type of card creation will be made available to its users and its use." The two prizes for the match match, etc. were cancelled. The author may not have read Liu Chuanzhi's speech at the Lenovo Group's founding conference. At the conference attended by the leaders of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Beijing Development Zone, Liu Chuanzhi concluded that: “Lenovo Group started with the development of a successful Lenovo character system and got its name. Since the launch of Lenovo's Chinese character system for more than three years, it has sold 20,000 sets of products and achieved a production value of 60 million yuan. In 1988, it won the first prize for national science and technology progress. ’”
Ni Guangnan introduces Lenovo Hanka
Ni Guangnan pointed out: "In the first three years of the company's establishment, Lenovo Hanka accounted for 38% of the company's total turnover, and profits and taxes accounted for 45.6%. In addition to this direct economic benefit, just as Comrade Liu Chuanzhi said: Lenovo-type Hanka is a competitive product in the market competition. The 10,000 sets of Lenovo-type Hanka that have been sold so far have achieved not only obvious direct economic benefits, but also indirect economic and social benefits. ’ From 1985 to 1996, Lenovo Hanka had eight models and sold a total of 160,000 units. ”
"Stone has a typewriter and a four-way formula, Lenovo has a Hanka and a computer, Founder has a typesetting system and a Chinese star, so these companies have developed, and ICT has not, and Colligan has not, because it is Can't think of what they have. If Zhongguancun is only a trading center for a long time, Silicon Valley is not a trade center, and Silicon Valley is the birthplace of new technologies. ”
"ICT has been established two years earlier than the company, which was quite famous at the time, but it did not have a high-quality product. Later, it worked hard to develop "small giants" and tried to use the funds accumulated by trade to support it, but it was hard to balance due to insufficient profits. Finally, it exited the stage of history for various reasons. ‘Colleges & Co."; was also larger than the computing company, its leaders saw Lenovo Hanka profit is good to say, to use six months to make better Hankuk than Lenovo Hanka! But never done it. ”
Ten years’ total work
Calling and interviewing, the lady who answered the phone one and one Ni, let us mistakenly think that Ni Guangnan was the president of what company, and later I realized that this title was just the continuation of Ni Guangnan's term of 10 years and a half. The ten-year total work experience of Ni Guangnan is threefold: “No one is born to be a leader. There are objective opportunities in this. If colleagues do not open the company, I am afraid that is still an ordinary researcher at the Institute. ”
Therefore, secondly, "Identify that the people you lead are equal to you. They are as capable as you are, as clever, and even better than you in some respects or better than you in most respects." The most important thing for business leaders is to display their enthusiasm, not to be smarter than others. Better than anyone else? ”
Third, "business leaders must realize that they will make mistakes." No one is an immortal. Therefore, do not deify yourself. Only in this way can you listen to opinions and problems can be corrected in time. ”
Ten years of total work, the most gratifying thing for Ni Guangnan was after his young men went out and “didn't basically say bad things about me” and they often contacted. "This shows that I did not suppress them. I am not academically conservative. If young people exceed me, I will start a new project again." ”
Ni Guangnan was very grateful that he had learned the natural sciences, and he had excelled in the natural sciences. In 1956, Ni Guangnan was admitted to the Nanjing Institute of Technology (now Southeast University) and studied radio studies. In the five years, all his homework was all five points. In school, Ni Guangnan did not learn any computer knowledge. "At that time, I mistakenly thought that with computers, all kinds of words could be automatically translated into each other, and foreign languages would not have to learn." ”
In 1961, Ni Guangnan was assigned to the Institute of Computing Technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the first computer institute in China. Ni Guangnan is a computer door in the development process of China's first self-designed electronic tube computer 119. Ni Guangnan read a book on the principles of digital computing and a full set of information on the previous computer 104 at this time. In the process of developing the 119 machine, Ni Guangnan became the leader of the plug-in (line) of the external device. "The number of radio lines is very small, and computers have a large number of duplicate lines. There are as many thousands of lines as thousands of lines of communication equipment. Therefore, I feel that there are many new problems and interest." "Gao Guangnan's "housekeeping skills" was able to back out of the external equipment part of the logic diagram, in the shortest possible time to find out the faulty electronic tubes that will be there every day.