This photo shows Intel's new quantum computing chip on pencil eraser
Unlike previous mass-produced quantum chips at Intel, the latest wafers focus on spin qubits instead of superconducting qubits. This secondary technology lags behind superconducting quantum dynamism, but it is easier to expand. It is understood that the tiny quantum bits of Intel's tiny new spin qubit chips are very small, about 50nm, visible only under an electron microscope, and about 1,500 qubits are equivalent to a human hair diameter, which means Intel's future quantum computer The chip may contain thousands or even millions of qubits and will be even more powerful than today's fastest supercomputer.
In addition, the new spin quantum chip operates at the extremely low temperatures required for quantum computing (about 460 degrees Fahrenheit), and spin quantum chips do not contain transistors, but can accommodate a single electron qubit. Single-electron behavior can be in multiple spin states at the same time. It has more computational power than current transistors and is the basis of quantum computing.
This new quantum chip is produced by Intel D1D Fab in Oregon, USA, using the same technology as the mature process that produced billions of conventional computer chips. Currently, Intel is now able to produce five silicon wafers per week, which includes up to 26 qubit quantum chips. As Intel has dramatically increased the number of quantum devices, it is expected to steadily increase the number of quantum quantum chips in the next few years.
In an interview, Intel’s Quantum Hardware Director Jim Clarke revealed that the technology used for small-scale production may eventually expand to produce more than 1,000 qubit chips. Currently, each wafer consists of quantum dots that must be carefully sliced so that each chip gets the appropriate number of qubits. Due to defects and physical limitations, the final chip may have 3, 7, 11 or 26 qubits. However, expansion and shrinkage limitations due to temperature fluctuations prevent engineers from simply expanding the number of quanta on the chip.
Of course, no matter what type of quantum computing is more advantageous, Intel's goal is to create an architecture that can be extended to more than 1 million qubits. Intel’s goal is to build an architecture that can scale to more than 1 million qubits, which will allow the use of the same basic structure, and there is no need to return to the origin every time there is a new quantum breakthrough.
However, Clarke also stated that “it is not unreasonable to achieve 1,000 qubits in five years.” He used the time difference between the world’s first integrated circuit and the Intel 4004 processor with only 2,500 transistors. In terms of quantum technology, it is necessary to imagine that in the 1960s, Clarke believed that Intel might reach 1 million qubits in 10 years, but he also said that he may be a bit optimistic in this regard.
Among them, a major challenge that remains to be solved is the extreme cold temperatures required for quantum processors. Since the temperature needs to be kept as close to absolute zero as possible, the performance of a quantum computer needs to be much higher than that of a traditional silicon chip computer, which is cost-effective. Separately, quantum efficiency is not high, but its output may increase exponentially. With the advancement of technology, the practicality of quantum computing chips will increase rapidly.
Finally, it should be noted that Intel, IBM, and Google’s goals in quantum computing will take some time to understand. However, the large scale of quantum computing equipment