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The NASA Insights probe successfully landed on Mars and brought the names of 260,000 Chinese.

via:博客园     time:2018/11/27 9:24:04     readed:1338

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This is the first photo taken by the dusty lens cap after the Landing & rdquo; landed on Mars.

Wen Teng Technology author Qiao Hui

At 3:56 am on November 27, 2018, Beijing time, NASA's "Insight" detector was successfully landed on Mars. Prior to this, the “Insight” had been flying in space for more than half a year, with a journey of more than 484 million kilometers. This journey would take 27 minutes even if the fastest light in the universe was run.

“Insights” Where did the land land on Mars?

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The Insight landed on the surface of Mars using a parachute and a reverse thrust engine, the same as the previous Mars rover.

Since the “Insight” is a detector that examines the global physical state of Mars, it is different from the previous idea of ​​site selection. Just consider the area that is good for the detector.

First of all, to ensure that there is sufficient sunlight in the landing area, so that there is sufficient power to drive the detection instrument, and secondly to ensure that the terrain of the landing area is flat enough and the formation is relatively loose. After more than four years of investigation, the scientists screened four landing alternative areas, which are located near the equator between 3 and 5 degrees north of Mars.

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The distribution of the detectors that landed on Mars on the surface of Mars. Red means the terrain is high and blue means the terrain is low.

In March 2017, scientists from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory announced that the final selection of the landing site was located on the Elysium Planitia in Mars, at a north latitude of 4.5 degrees east longitude, 135.9 degrees east long distance. ” 600 km north of the rover.

“Insight & rdquo; to go to Mars?

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So far, more than 40 large and small detectors launched by humans to Mars add up to more than 40. Mars can be said to be the most well-known planet in the solar system except the Earth. All previous detectors studied Mars' surface, atmosphere and magnetic fields. For example, the famous “Curious” rover car mainly analyzes the surface geological conditions and chemical composition of Mars, and the “Insight” is the first detector to detect the interior of Mars, in order to understand the internal structure of Mars. The whole picture.

“ insights & rdquo; number carried three major instruments

After the landing, an earthquake detector will be placed on the surface of Mars; a heat flow probe that can penetrate 5 meters deep inside Mars; and a device that uses radio communication to measure the sloshing of the Mars rotation axis. These three instruments are used to study the internal structure of Mars, fill the Mars physics gap, and better understand how rock planets are born. If the "Curious" rover is the incarnation of geologists and chemists, then the "Insight" is the physicist who studies the global structure of Mars.

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Fire detector

In daily life, when people choose watermelons, they habitually take a shot and listen to the sound to judge the quality. For the same reason, since the earth is opaque to light, the most common device for knowing the internal structure of the earth is a seismometer that can measure the earth's vibration. Similarly, seismographs can be used on Mars, and on Mars they are called fire detectors. “ insights & rdquo; carry the fire vibrometer to measure the vibration caused by Mars itself and the meteorite impact on Mars, by measuring these vibrations, you can calculate the internal conditions of Mars.

The fire seismograph is a device that is led by the French Space Agency and is built by many countries. It can detect low-frequency atmospheric fluctuations of Mars, tidal fluctuation signals generated by a pair of Mars, and high-frequency Mars vibration signals.

Heat flow probe

In daily life, when we have a fever, we use body temperature to measure body temperature. Similarly, the heat flow probe is a thermometer that measures the body temperature of Mars. It is used to measure the heat loss inside Mars, and to study the thermal state inside Mars and the evolution over time. . The heat flow probe is connected to the “Insight” by cable and data line, and the information is transmitted back to the computer in real time.

The heat flow probe is supplied and manufactured by Germany. It is a self-driven probe that is drilled into the earth. The preset depth on Mars is 5 meters, which is roughly equivalent to the length of the car.

Rotating and internal structure experimental device

Or use the example in daily life as a metaphor. Everyone has the experience of distinguishing raw and cooked without breaking the eggs. That is to rotate them. The raw eggs usually stop after a few rotations, while the cooked eggs can turn. It doesn't stop, because of the different physical state inside the egg. Similarly, this device also determines the internal physical state by measuring the sloshing of Mars.

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Layered structure inside the Earth, Mars and Moon (schematic diagram)

Developed by the US Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the device uses the Doppler effect of the X-band signal of the Insight to fine-tune the sloshing of the Mars rotation axis and then reverse the internal physical state of Mars. The X-band signal can correct Mars sway information to within 2 cm.

Previously, the "Pirates" detector and the "Mars Pathfinder" detectors have done similar experiments, but the accuracy is not too high, only the size of the Mars kernel can be estimated. Once the “Insight” symbol transmits the sloshing information of the rotation, precession, and nutation of the Mars rotation axis back to Earth, scientists can more accurately calculate the size of the Martian core and the mantle. This helps us understand the formation of terrestrial planets in the solar system and rocky planets outside the solar system.

“ 240 million people & rdquo; together to fly Mars

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The top 10 countries with the largest number of participants: the United States, China, India, the United Kingdom, Turkey, Italy, Germany, Russia, Canada, and Brazil.

Although we are afraid that we will not be able to travel to Mars for the rest of our lives, the “Insight” has given everyone a chance to get in touch with Mars. The names of more than 2.4 million people including the author of this article (260,000 people in China) were collected from around the world before launch, and then engraved on siliceous sheets to prepare for a flight to Mars. Although this is not the first time in the space industry to play like this, it is indeed the most popular one, which is twice the name of the famous "Curious" Rover.

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This is the first silicon wafer engraved with the names of many people, and later added one.

In fact, the first collection began as early as August 2015, and a total of 826,923 names were collected in 22 days. NASA engineers used the electron beam to write the names of everyone on the silicon microflakes. The flakes were only 0.8 cm2 and the width of the letters was only a thousandth of the width of the hair.

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This is the e-Cert returned by NASA three years ago after the author's name was successfully uploaded. The planned launch date was also March 4, 2016.

At that time, the “Insight” was expected to be launched in 2016, but the task was forced to be postponed due to temporary problems with the fire detector provided by France. Since the Mars launch window is only available every 26 months, launching the detector during the window period is the most fuel efficient. Therefore, the "Insight" was delayed until May 5, 2018. In the extra two years, the second round of name collection was launched, and a silicon wafer was added. A total of 2,429,807 names were collected. These names end up with the "Insight" and remain on Mars forever, making everyone a tribute to Mars.

“ insights & rdquo; number two friends

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The two cubes of small satellites transmit the information of the observations to the Earth in real time.

Follow the "Insight" to Mars with not only the names of 2.4 million Earth people, but also two small cube satellites, each of which is 6U (30 cm & time; 20 cm & time; 10 cm). These two small satellites are called “Mars Cube One” and are used to verify the navigation and persistence capabilities of cubic small satellites in deep space, and to bring the “insight” to the Mars process in real time. The signal relay in the middle is transmitted back to Earth. It is worth mentioning that because there is no power brake, the two little guys will not enter the orbit of Mars, but will continue to drift in the solar system after flying over Mars.

Postponed two years of launch cost soaring

The “Insight” is part of the NASA “Discovery” project, which seeks to make new discoveries with smaller investments. The budget for each project does not exceed $450 million. In contrast, projects such as “Curious” are part of the “flagship” project, which cost $2.5 billion, and the Cassini-Huygens detector cost $3.9 billion.

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Before the insight was lifted, the engineers in the clean laboratory were tested (left), which looked almost identical to the previous “Phoenix” Mars probe (right). It can be seen that the two foldable solar panels are very large. It produces 1800 watts of electrical power on Earth, but after Mars, it produces only 600 watts of electrical power due to reduced light intensity.

The platform design of “Insight” directly emulates the “Phoenix” detector that was previously on the Mars Polar, which can reduce costs and use proven technology to ensure reliability.

“Insight” was originally launched in March 2016, but at the time of the launch, the fire detector designed and manufactured by France failed and had to be postponed. As mentioned earlier, the best window for flying Mars It’s only once every 26 months. This delay is more than two years, and it costs a lot more money. In fact, the cost has risen to $830 million by launch.

It belongs to the “Discovery” project, as well as the “Deep Impact” (DEEP IMPACT) detector, the detection of Venus and Ceres, and the “Dawn” (DAWN) detector and the detection of Mercury. The messenger & quot; (MESSENGER), as well as the famous "Kepler" telescope for the search for exoplanets, etc., from the results, the series of detectors of the project is still very cost-effective.

What is the significance of this exploration of Mars?

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Comparison of the size of the Earth and Mars

Mars is one of the eight planets in the solar system. Among the three terrestrial planets in the solar system, Mars' environment is closest to Earth. Mercury and Venus are too hot and humans can't land. Mars has a thin atmosphere with a pressure of 1% of the Earth and a local maximum temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. Of course, the average temperature is still relatively low, only minus 63 degrees Celsius.

Therefore, if you conduct interstellar immigration in the future, Mars will definitely be the first choice. The dream of tech madman Musk is to send humans to Mars in the foreseeable future and to establish colonies there.

“The insight” is not the same as the previous 40 Mars probes. The main purpose of this time is to understand the evolution of the Earth-like planets in the solar system by understanding the internal structure and thermal state of Mars. The evolution of terrestrial planets outside the solar system.


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Aerospace experts fully interpret the United States "insights" & rdquo; detectors landing on Mars

Text / Pang Zhihao: famous aerospace expert

After more than six months of flight, the US Insight Mars probe finally landed safely on Mars at 03:56 on November 27, 2018 Beijing time. The Insight was launched on May 5, 2018 by the Cosmos 5 rocket. This is the first time that the United States has launched a space probe from the Vandenberg Air Force base on the west coast from west to east. The reason is that the thrust of the Cosmos 5 is large enough and the launch window is more suitable.

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Insight on the landing of Mars

The whole task is divided into four stages: launch, cruise, entry and landing (EDL), and surface operation. It is the first spacecraft to detect deep Mars. It will study the internal structure of Mars by listening to the Martian earthquake and measuring its heat output, revealing the formation of rocky planets, filling the Martian geophysical gap, and better understanding other rock planets. How was it (including the Earth) born?

1. It is not easy to detect Mars

To date, humans have launched more than 40 Mars probes with a success rate of about 50%, so Mars is called “Detector Cemetery” or “Death Planet”. The main reason is that Mars is far away from the Earth, and the detectors have to fly hundreds of millions of kilometers to reach Mars. Therefore, high requirements are placed on technologies such as orbit, control, communication and power supply.

For example, the difficulty of a probe entering the orbit of Mars is likened to playing a golf ball from Paris, just to a hole in Tokyo. This is due to the long communication delay and all data must be injected in advance. During the process of the probe cutting into Mars, if the point of entry is too far from Mars, it cannot be captured by Mars and passed over Mars; if the point is too close to Mars, it may crash into the Martian atmosphere.

The complex and harsh environment of Mars is also the main reason why Mars probes are often "dead". The atmospheric density of Mars is only 1% of the Earth's atmospheric density, so the radiation is severe. The sandstorms on Mars are also very large, sometimes six times that of the 12 typhoons on Earth, and the time is up to six months. This year's Opportunity is due to sandstorms and “sacrifice” (news news: there may be resurrection).

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US Opportunity Rover, which stopped working this year due to sandstorms

2. It’s harder to land on Mars.

It is more difficult for the detector to land on the surface of Mars. Because the detector is far away from the Earth when it enters the Martian atmosphere, the telemetry and remote control signals are weak. In addition, when the detector moves to the back of Mars, the orbital parameters cannot be accurately determined on the Earth, which gives the choice of reentry height. It is difficult.

After entering the Martian atmosphere, how about the detector's heat protection measures? Whether parachutes, airbags, and buffer rockets can work according to procedures is critical and must be very precise. The whole process goes through the so-called “horror 7 minutes”. An American scientist once described the mood of the Mars probe as it landed, just as the husband waited for his wife to give birth outside the delivery room. Therefore, the technology of the detector landing on Mars is very complicated, and there must be no flashes in every link. Many detectors are therefore out of control.

For example, on September 23, 1999, the United States “Mars Climate Orbiter” was burned after it was about to enter the scheduled orbit. The reason was that during the track-cutting operation, navigation errors caused by confusion between imperial and metric units made it fly. Burned out too close to Mars.

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A fall in the United States & ldquo; Mars climate orbiter & rdquo;

October 20, 2016, Europe "Mars Biology-2016""Chaparelli" The entry, landing and landing demonstrator lost contact with the ground before landing due to a one-second calculation error As a result, the parachute was separated from the heat shield in advance, causing the "Shaparelli" to crash and crash.

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“Xiaparelli” Landing Mars Process Diagram

3, how to choose three ways

At present, there are mainly three types of detectors in the soft landing of Mars, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages.

One is the airbag bounce. This method is relatively simple and low in cost, but can only meet the soft landing requirements of a small weight detector, and the landing accuracy is not high. The United States "Mars Pathfinder", "Mars Rover" (Courage and Opportunity Rover) use parachute + airbag bounce.

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Airbag bouncing

The second is to push back the landing leg. This method is more complicated and costly, and can meet the soft landing requirements of the larger detector, and the landing accuracy is high. The American Viking, Phoenix, Insight and European Beagle No. 2, "Chaparelli" are both parachute + buffer engine reverse push + landing leg.

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Insights use a reverse landing leg to map on Mars landing

The third is the air crane type. This method is the most complicated, the most cost-effective, and the most advanced technology, which can meet the soft landing requirements of the heavier detector and can accurately land. The United States "Mars Science Laboratory" uses parachute + buffer engine reverse push + aerial crane.

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Curiosity landed on the surface of Mars by means of parachutes and aerial cranes

In order to carry people on Mars, the United States is still developing "low-density supersonic speed reducer" (LDSD). It can be used as a breakthrough technology for large spacecraft landing on Mars, and also for the safe return of large loads to the Earth. However, it is very complicated and the test fails many times, so it still needs a long way.

4. The insight number is reversed.

The Insight is the same as the landing of the Phoenix, which was previously landed on the Martian Arctic, using a reverse landing leg, as follows.

E-6.3 minutes, the execution of the entry procedure (E represents the moment of entering the atmosphere);

E-0.5 minutes, complete the attitude adjustment;

E-0 seconds, height 128 km, speed 5.9 km/s, entry angle α=-12°;

E+99 seconds, the maximum exposure to hot spots, height 44.2 km;

E+117 seconds, maximum deceleration 7.9g;

E+223 seconds, open parachute, height 12 km, speed 415 m / s;

E+238 seconds, throwing heat-proof shield shell, height 10.3 km, speed 132 m / s;

E+300 seconds, the radar starts working and the altitude is 5.5 kilometers;

L-43 seconds, the lander is separated from the bell jar, height 1.1 km, speed 61 m / s (L indicates landing time);

L-40 seconds, gravity adjustment, height 0.9 km;

L-16 seconds, constant speed drop, height 51 meters, speed 7.8 m / s;

L+0 seconds~L+15 minutes, waiting for dust reduction;

L+7 seconds, various deployments start to ignite with pyrotechnics;

L+25 minutes, the solar cell wing unfolds.

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Insight entry, descent, and landing timing diagram

5, landing in the pure land of bliss

After the launch, the Insight flew 858 million kilometers and landed on the Elysium Planitia near the equator of the northern hemisphere of Mars on November 26, 2018. This is the legendary pure land of bliss.

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The elliptical area where the insight landed, approximately 130 kilometers long and 27 kilometers wide

The Eleux Plain is located near the equator of Mars (latitude 3.0°, east longitude 154.7°) and is a flat lava plain. The landing site is an elliptical area 130 km long and 27 km wide on the western edge of the plain. It has favorable conditions and strong project achievability in landing safety, thermal control, illumination, measurement and control communication. It is close to Mars' equator and has plenty of sunshine, which is good for insights using solar power; its lower elevation and flat terrain make it relatively safe for landing.

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Mars topographic map of the landing sites of the Mars landers in the United States, the red zone represents the heights, and the blue zone represents the lowlands.

The location of the landing site took four years. Since the Insight is to study the structure inside Mars, you need to choose a thinner place. Second, the insight is an in-situ detector, so the landing point must be flat. The third is to drill the probe down the shallow surface of Mars, so find a flat and soft place. Fourth, the landing site should be bright enough and warm enough to provide sufficient solar energy for the detector.

In order to enable the insight to obtain enough solar energy, the landing point was selected at 15 deg; deg; latitude 5 & deg; and then narrowed to 3 latitude & deg; latitude; the specific landing coordinates were: north latitude 4.5 & deg; east longitude 135.0 & deg; Because the terrain is flat, there is no gully, and there is plenty of sunshine to charge the solar panels. In addition, the landing site is 600 kilometers from the Curiosity Rover and can communicate with several Mars orbiters currently in operation. In order to ensure the buffering needs of the parachute during the landing process, the landing point is lower than 2.5 km below the Martian geoid, and the slope of the terrain is less than 15 & deg; the stone should not be too much, the weathered layer is soft, and it is convenient to land. And drill a hole 5 meters deep.

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Martian Eurex Plain

6, composed of three major components

The Inspector consists primarily of the cruise class, the entry, descent and landing systems, and the three major parts of the lander. The cruise class will carry the lander and landing system to complete the Earth's journey to Mars. The entry, descent and landing systems include protective covers, parachutes and Downgrading, the lander is the core component of the exploration work on the surface of Mars.

It weighs 360 kilograms and has a maximum width of about 6 meters. It has two circular solar panels that can be deployed like paper fans. The solar panels are 2.2 meters in diameter and carry more advanced scientific instruments.

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Round solar panel that can be unfolded like a paper fan

After landing, the Insights launched a two-year in-situ survey to explore the interior of Mars for the first time. Prior to this, the total of 47 human Mars explorations were conducted on Mars's global, surface, atmospheric, and magnetic fields. During the mission, the Insights will send back more than 30GB of data.

Because Insight can explore the internal structure of the rocky planets in the solar system, it can provide a reference for building permanent structures on it; it can also help scientists to piece together the formation of the land world more than 4 billion years ago; Internal temperature information, studying Martian weather, reveals how solar winds, cosmic rays, and charged particles propagate through the atmosphere to the surface of Mars. All the information it has obtained has important reference value for future human landing on Mars.

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Artwork of the Insight Landing View

7, will listen to the sound of Mars

The Insight is like a scientific time machine, doing CT for Mars, and bringing back information about the earliest stages of Mars formation 4.5 billion years ago. It will study the crustal, mantle and geologic structures of Mars by observing the Martian earthquake, obtain data on the Martian structure and other rocky planets in the solar system, and learn how rocky celestial bodies are formed, including the Earth, the Moon, and even other solar systems. Planets will help scientists understand the changes in Mars over millions of years, that is, through Mars to understand the origin and evolution of terrestrial planets, including the Earth, in the solar system.

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Insight internal equipment

It has two major scientific tasks: first, to determine the current level of Martian geological tectonic activity and the frequency of meteorite impacting on Mars by detecting the scale, frequency and geographical distribution of seismic activity within Mars and the frequency of meteorite impacting on Mars surface; second, to study terrestrial behavior by investigating the internal structure and activity process of Mars. The formation and evolution of stars includes the determination of the thermal state within Mars, the composition and structure of the Martian mantle, the thickness and structure of the Martian crust, and the size, composition and physical state (liquid/solid) of the Martian core.

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Complete the Mars Lander of Insight

8. Six specific investigation items

In order to peer into the mystery of the deep structure of Mars, NASA has set up six specific research projects for Insight: to determine the size, composition and physical state of the Mars core; to determine the thickness and structure of the Mars crust; to determine the composition and structure of the Mars mantle; to determine the thermal state of Mars interior; and to measure the interior of Mars. The magnitude, velocity and geographic distribution of seismic activity; the meteorite impact rate on the surface of Mars was measured.

rather than

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Insight is the first probe dedicated to the investigation of the internal structure of Mars.

The probe will drill into the depth of 5 meters below Mars to investigate, measure temperature and gravity fluctuations, and help scientists understand whether the core of Mars is composed of liquid or solid, so as to study the structure and evolution of Mars and other planets. It will also explore the rotation of the Red Planet, the thickness of the Earth's core, the structure of the crust and mantle, internal thermal energy, tectonic movement, seismic activity and meteorite impact on Mars.

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Operational sketch for the landing of the Perspective on Mars. The semicircular device in the lower left corner is the seismograph.

Through the exploration of Mars in the past 50 years, we have gained a comprehensive understanding of the climate, surface material, topography and geological structure of Mars. For this reason, Mars exploration has developed from a comprehensive survey to a detailed survey of land and patrol areas, from the exploration of Mars environment to the search for water and even life on Mars.

9. Pay more attention to scientific inquiry

The mission is characterized by a focus on scientific research, aiming at the formation of rocky planets; the first exploration of the interior of Mars, in-depth study of the internal activities of Mars.

It is a pure Mars geophysical probe. Its main objective is to understand the internal structure of Mars and to study the early history of the formation of Mars. Scientists will use it to solve one of the fundamental problems of planetary and solar system science, that is, the formation of rocky planets (including the Earth) in the solar system more than 4 billion years ago.

Because it will be able to detect the size, thickness, density and overall structure of the Martian core, mantle and crust, as well as the speed at which heat escapes from the interior of Mars, it is possible to study the evolution of all the lithologic planets in the inner solar system and to improve understanding of this process.

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Insight mark

The U.S. -based Mars Lander Discovery is actually an international cooperation project. Among them, the management, platform, assembly, launch and operation of Insight, as well as some scientific exploration instruments, are the responsibility of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Loma Corporation (the development of cruise and lander).

The three main scientific payloads of the Insight lander are French.

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Structural Chart of the Insight Mars Explorer

10. Earthquakes Exploring Mars

Seismology is the most important scientific exploration instrument on Insight, developed by the French National Space Research Center. The core of the instrument is three high precision broadband seismic sensors installed in titanium alloy spherical vacuum vessel. They are very sensitive and can measure the ground motion of less than 1/4 hydrogen atom diameter (1-10 meters), record fire or meteorite collisions, accurately grasp fire and other internal activities of Mars, and study the impact of Mars crust and mantle on meteorites. The response of the impact of rocks provides clues for understanding the internal structure of planets. Therefore, technology is very difficult.

Bruce, chief scientist of the Insight? Bennett (BruceBanerdt) said seismology revealed the history of Earth's billions of years of geological movement and that as a rocky planet Mars must have preserved early historical traces of its birth.

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Seismograph deployed by test manipulator

Seismology is used to accurately measure vibration and other activities within Mars, in order to better understand the history and structure of Mars. Like a snapshot camera, it can take images of the interior of the planet, which is equivalent to CT scanning of the planet. When rocks on Mars crack or move relatively, seismic waves will reverberate throughout the planet. The propagation velocities of these seismic waves depend on the properties of the medium through which they propagate, so the velocities vary. The seismograph can detect the intensity, frequency and propagation speed of these seismic waves, and obtain the information of the geological medium through which the seismic waves pass.

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A schematic diagram of the internal structure of the seismograph. It's like a stethoscope that monitors seismic information on Mars.

Every time an earthquake occurs on Mars, Insight takes a snapshot of the interior of Mars. It can record dozens to hundreds of earthquakes during its mission. Mars has a thin atmosphere, and small meteorites often pass through the Martian atmosphere and fall on the surface of Mars, causing tremors, which are also recorded by seismographs. However, this time the Mars earthquake can only be measured at the landing site of Insight, rather than at multiple stations on Earth.

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Structural Chart of the Insight Mars Explorer

Actually, as early as America,

11. Temperature will be taken for Mars

The heat flow probe is a self-penetrating heat flow probe used to penetrate the temperature sensor into the weathering layer. It was developed by the German Aerospace Center to detect the heat from the Martian core 5 meters below the surface and help reveal the thermal history of Mars. It's much more powerful than a spade or other tool on a Mars rover. It can go deeper below the surface of Mars and measure the energy inside Mars.

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A heat flow probe is like a thermometer measuring heat conduction on Mars.

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The heat flux probe in the lower left corner can penetrate 5 meters below the surface, measure the heat dissipated inside Mars and help reveal the thermal history of Mars.

Its wind and atmospheric temperature sensors, (TWINS) and high-resolution pressure sensors, were developed by the Spanish Centre for Astrobiology to monitor the weather at landing sites. It helps scientists eliminate the disturbance of measurements caused by the Martian weather environment. So, this insight will allow scientists to eliminate the shock caused by the weather.

12. Manipulators are widely used

Insight's instrument deployment arm (IDA) is 2.4 meters long and is used to select suitable locations and deploy seismographs and heat flow probes. After landing on Mars, Perspective deployed seismographs and heat flow probes on the surface of Mars with a robotic arm. The two instruments measure tiny ground motions and monitor thermal activity inside Mars, respectively.

It will monitor Martian weather and magnetic field changes with cameras and a range of environmental sensors. The instrument on it is equipped with a bucket digger (CRAPPLE) at the end of the manipulator arm to catch the instrument. The Instrument Deployment Camera (IDC) is a Mid-resolution pointing camera used to capture black and white images of instruments on the deck of the lander, and to obtain a 3D view of the seismograph and heat flow probe, which can help experts guide the instrument deployment on the surface of Mars. Its Instrumental Background Camera (ICC) is a fixed wide-angle camera used to expand the field of vision of the landing area of the lander. It is expected that the first photograph will be taken within one hour after landing and will be transmitted back to Earth on the same day.

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Configuration Diagram of the Lander of Insight

The magnetometer is used to measure the magnetic field interference caused by the ionosphere on Mars. The electromagnetic sounder is used to collect crustal thickness, groundwater and mantle lithosphere data.

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Scientists will use these advanced instruments to detect all kinds of Mars

13. Mars in the Public Name

While landing on Mars, Perspective will carry two microchips with public names to Mars land together to stimulate public interest in Mars exploration. Beginning in 2015, NASA has sent its name to the chip of Insight through its official website. The information containing the name of the public is stored on the chip, and it will travel to Mars with Insight to start a virtual trip to Mars. In August 2015, nearly 827,000 people wrote their names on the chip of Insight, but more and more names were collected because the launch of Insight was delayed due to a malfunction.

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Put chips with tens of thousands of names on Insight

To this end, in 2017, NASA added a new microchip to the Insight to allow the public to upload their names. The Name Collection of Insight's Mars Tour ended on November 1, 2017. More than 2.4 million names were inscribed on the chip, including 653,000 American names, 260,000 Chinese names (including Zhang Guorong) and 635,000 Russian names. Equatorial Guineans have the fewest names, only seven. Each letter of these names is only 400 nanometers wide (the width of human hair is 100,000 nanometers), occupying a small volume, so it can carry a lot of.

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The public whose name flew to Mars with Insight

14. Cubic Star for Fire Detection

In fact, Insight flew to Mars with two 6U cube satellites called Mars Cube One (MarCO). This is the first time that cube satellites have been used for deep space exploration missions. The purpose is to see if cube satellites can survive in harsh conditions in space and still perform missions after reaching their destinations.

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Engineers are testing Mars Cube 1

They have the same function, backup each other, and are all 30 centimeters in size.

This pair of briefcase-sized cube satellites this time mainly used for technical verification and in the future can assist in manned deep space exploration. They must fly over Mars about 3500 kilometers from the surface of Mars as they descend toward the surface of Mars, using a method called

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Two Mars Cube 1 flight sketches in Mars orbit

Without these two cube satellites, the Insight data would have to pass through the United States

However, Mars Cube 1 has only solar panels and high-gain antennas, and it does not have access to the planet's scientific data on its own. Its solar panels are 30 cm in size.

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Configuration of Mars Cube 1

If Mars Cube 1 could approach Mars together with Insight, they would not enter the orbit of Mars, but would fly over Mars and transmit the data of Insight back to Earth at a speed of 8 kilobits per second.

epilogue

Mars is the nearest Earthlike planet, with the necessary conditions for life, and may become the ideal planet for future migration. To this end, many countries, including China, have taken Mars as a new destination for the future space exploration blueprint, and are steadily advancing their Mars exploration activities. The world's Mars exploration is setting off a new high tide. In general, the way Mars is explored is similar to that of the moon.

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