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90 years old "not old"! The Chinese scientist is still running for AIDS prevention

via:博客园     time:2019/1/6 9:33:21     readed:132

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Netease Technology "Master of Science" No. 10, interviewed academicians of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, the current country "drinking AIDS and viral hepatitis and other major infectious diseases prevention" rdquo; major technical special master of the science and technology Hou Yunde.

This article from the micro-channel public number: NEW YORK Scientist (ID: WYKXR163), Author: Zhang Jianfeng, planning: Yangxia Qing, Guo Hao, formerly titled "90 years old & ldquo; & rdquo ;! not old The Chinese scientist is still running for AIDS prevention

Who is he

Hou Yunde, born in July 1929, Changzhou, Jiangsu.

Academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, the current state "drinking AIDS and viral hepatitis and other major infectious diseases prevention and control", major technical special master of science and technology, former director of the Institute of Virology of the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, director of the Department of Medicine and Health of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, vice president Waiting for a position.

Outstanding strategic scientists and scientists in the field of biomedicine in China, the main founder of China's modern molecular virology, modern medicine biotechnology industry and modern infectious disease prevention and control technology system, also known as "the father of Chinese interferon" .

Why did he get the highest national science and technology award?

Academician Hou Yunde is the 29th winner of the highest national science and technology award in China. In January of this year, he and another winner, Nanjing University of Technology professor and academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, Wang Zeshan, were awarded certificates at the National Science and Technology Awards Conference held in the Great Hall of the People.

Scientists who have won the National Science and Technology Award are not simple.

First of all, as the country's highest science and technology awards, two winners will be produced once a year. In some years, because the candidates have not enough votes, they are not likely to be indiscriminate, and even there are vacancies.

This award is not only strict in the judging process, it is said to have seven assessment steps.

The highest scientific and technological award winners such as Yuan Longping, Wang Xuan and Tu Yu before Hou Yunde also produced this kind of scene. These big scientists sit in front of the jury and accept the assessment. What kind of scenes will be thought of.

Secondly, candidates who can win prizes must first meet a hard target —— winners must make major breakthroughs in the frontier of contemporary science and technology or have outstanding achievements in the development of science and technology.

Netease Technology reporter noticed that there is a description of Hou Yunde's characters in the official website of the Ministry of Science and Technology, including a series of “International Originality”, “World First”, “The First” in China:

For example, in the early 1980s, Hou Yunde took the lead in using molecular biology theory and methods to complete the genome-wide sequencing of China's largest genome & mdash; — vaccinia virus Tiantan strain, "," the first to develop an international original, China The first genetic engineering drug (national class I new drug) & mdash; & mdash; recombinant human interferon & alpha; 1b, to achieve China's genetic engineering drugs from scratch [zero] rsquo; breakthrough, and then developed in a few short years One national class I and six national class II genetic engineering new drugs", his genetic engineering drug “ not only has been applied to the clinical treatment of tens of millions of patients, but also successfully replaced international imports and generated billions of yuan Economic benefits & rdquo;.

In the past ten years, Hou Yunde has led the “Severe Infectious Diseases Prevention and Treatment of AIDS and Viral Hepatitis”, and the “Technology Major Expert Group”, “Top Designed China 2008— 2020 Response to Major Epidemic Situation and Reduction of “Three Diseases” Rate & rsquo;'s overall plan & rdquo; & ldquo; layout has established a multi-sector, multi-field, nationwide infectious disease detection platform and monitoring network, China's new development of infectious disease prevention and control technology and capabilities to the international advanced level, China has successfully responded to the epidemic of major infectious diseases that have occurred in the past 10 years at home and abroad.

In addition, he also led the prevention and control response and scientific and technological research of the H1N1 influenza pandemic in China in 2009, and achieved the world's first research results, which enabled China to set a precedent for the successful intervention of the influenza pandemic in human history. ”

Judging from these introductions, Hou Yunde has the same senior qualifications and outstanding contributions as other national winners of the highest science and technology awards. At the same time, we have been fighting at the front line of scientific research to pour energy into the control of infectious diseases.

90 years old, & ldquo; jerseys & rdquo; still in the body

In 2008, Hou Yunde was 79 years old. Not only did he not retire, he was also appointed as “Master of Science and Technology Majors in the Prevention and Treatment of AIDS and Viral Hepatitis”, and he has not retired until today. Some media reports said that he is still working until nearly ninety this year.

At the end of October this year, Netease Technology reporter interviewed Hou Yunde. When he asked him to verify this matter, Hou Yunde listened and laughed. He said, “It’s not working every day. Anyway, there are things every day, and there are more things. ”

At this point, Hou Yunde of Ben Jiu and academicians of Yuan Longping and Academician Sun Jiadong are similar to the highest scientific prize winners in the country. They are all old men who can't afford to go. Yuan Longping has been busy with rice fields. Sun Jiadong is currently the chief designer of Fengyun No. 2 Project, senior technical consultant of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, senior consultant of China Lunar Exploration Engineering, and senior consultant of Beidou Navigation System.

"The jersey" is in the body, the value and role of the old man, can not be said to be irreplaceable.

In a report in August this year, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress mentioned that in recent years, the overall situation of infectious diseases in China has stabilized and declined. The report once again highlights several things that the general public do not understand: successful response to human infections. H7N9 Avian influenza and other new infectious diseases and imported diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome, Zika virus disease and yellow fever, China has built the world's largest infectious disease network direct reporting system, China has been tested within 72 hours The ability of more than 300 kinds of pathogens, etc., and these work are inseparable from the behind-the-scenes work of the national special team for the prevention and control of infectious diseases led by Hou Yunde.

After becoming the winner of the highest scientific prize in the country, Hou Yunde's halo is dazzling, and it is surrounded by warmth in public. The people who ask for signatures and photo-sharing are everywhere, so they can not be able to lift their legs and walk.

But he is not a star scientist who is good at self-packaging and promotion. At least from the performance of the media, before, most of his life has not entered the public, the media's line of sight, can be said to be unknown.

Netease Technology reporters found that various reports on Hou Yunde were basically concentrated after his award, and before January of this year, there was no news report about Hou Yunde’s people on the Internet, even though he was already in China. The field of infectious disease research has been busy for more than half a century.

Perhaps the academic field has blocked the general public's cognition, perhaps it is a low-key behavior that does not like publicity. In the public view, the long-term "lack of position", no one cares, to become a focus person, a cold and a hot, forming Strong contrast contrast.

Hou Yunde said to people that when he got the award, he almost burst into tears and felt that his labor had been recognized by the state.

When Dong Xiaoping, deputy director of the China National Center for Disease Control and Prevention, introduced Hou Yunde, he said that ——“he was a decision maker in many major outbreaks in our country. He is the director of an expert committee. The director of the expert committee is really bad. He is sitting on a crater and going to the fire-fighting mountain. ”

He said that his goal is to "renovate the world";

Fighting against infectious diseases is an endless battle. In the real world, there is no change in germs and viruses all the time. For scientists, there is no one on this front that can be used once and for all; Great Wall” It can be built, it is a dynamic offensive and defensive process. The team of scientists, composed of Academician Hou Yunde and others, is at the forefront of the "front line" and patrols, which may ensure that the world we live on is not attacked by various viruses and becomes an unknown barrier.

“What is the purpose of our research on virology? In 1845, the eleventh outline of Marx's "About Feuerbach's Outline" answers this question ——‘The past philosophers only explained the world in different ways, and the problem is to transform the world & rsquo;” .

At the World Life Science Conference in October, Hou Yunde made an academic report on the theme of “Virus Infection and Immunity”. At the end of the report, facing the audience of nearly a thousand Chinese and foreign audiences, the elderly were treated with a sense and The philosophical talk back to his own research history, "I have been studying virology for 60 years, what is the purpose?" It is to transform the world, control viral diseases, and ensure the stability of our national society and economic development for the benefit of mankind. ”

The destructive power of infectious diseases is very large. For most of the public, there is no SARS (atypical pneumonia) epidemic that swept the world 15 years ago (2003). The epidemic was terrible in China and brought people’s The tremor of the mind is profound. The media reported that Hou Yunde, who was the director of the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine and the vice president of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, was able to receive numerous telephone calls every day to question the results. He also calmly recalled afterwards, "small SARS" was too sudden, we were not prepared, the virus research was not sufficient, and we did not understand the route of transmission. We were very passive. ”

The masses and health care workers have successively “fallen”, Hou Yunde and a group of disease prevention and control experts are looking for solutions behind the scenes.

On April 24, 2003, the State Food and Drug Administration approved the first prevention of "SARS" drugs & mdash; — & alpha; 2b interferon, Hou Yunde and others of this research was "green channel" Enter the clinical trial. Studies have shown that α-2b interferon inhibits viral replication and protects cells from damage. Five days later, Hou Yunde's other ω interferon also entered clinical trials. The Chinese Academy of Sciences wrote in an article devoted to Hou Yunde at the time that these two interferon drugs, “equivalent to life-saving protective clothing, help to reduce the infection rate of the general public, mainly first-line medical staff. ”

Although the ultimate disease was repelled, the legacy of the disease has not disappeared. Afterwards, many patients still have to live in the shadow of sequelae such as pulmonary fibrosis, which is difficult.

“We always need to be eager to wait and not be numb. "Hou Yunde told NetEase Technology reporters, "Infectious diseases are old and control the new ones will come, not that we have completely eliminated the virus, the virus is still there, you can not eliminate the pathogens." Because the viruses are mutating, and you are human-resistant, the new virus will continue to be produced.

“Marx said that the world is material and matter is sport. The substance of movement is actually changing. The world is the objective existence of matter, not a problem that can be solved in one time, and it cannot be solved. ”

Hou Yunde also told reporters that there is no cruel fact, "viral disease can not be cured, general bacterial disease is a cure, viral disease is basically no cure. So the most important way is to do a good job of prevention. Infectious diseases Our control of it can not be controlled by treatment alone. It cannot be treated alone, and it must be prevented. ”

Netease Technology reporter and Hou Houshi dialogue

Netease Technology: How to prevent it?

Hou Yunde: The key point is to reduce the source of infection, the fundamental control, or rely on this method. Because the development of infectious diseases is mainly three links: one is the source of infection, one is the route of transmission, and the other is the susceptible population. In the past, we relied on vaccination to reduce the number of susceptible people, but you have to have a vaccine for the vaccine. It is useful for known and old infectious diseases, but once new infectious diseases appear, You have no time to develop a vaccine. And not all diseases can be vaccinated, and some are bad, and there are cases of immunopathology.

Netease Technology: Reduce the source of infection, how to do it?

Hou Yunde: If a new infectious disease occurs, such as by the respiratory tract, it spreads very quickly, and there is no way to effectively intervene. After Sas, we proposed early diagnosis and early treatment. When we encountered this kind of infectious disease, the virus was very powerful. We proposed isolation. You should not go out when you stay at home. This is a measure after early diagnosis. This is very simple, you can't go out at home for a week, basically the epidemic is under control. This mechanism is very effective, and it is used in the health systems at or above the county level from the state to various places.

Netease Technology: How about the results?

Hou Yunde: After this method was adopted, there have been two major epidemic diseases in the world so far, which have not been seen in our country. Since our country, there has not been a big epidemic that caused social panic and undermined the normal order of society.

Hou Yunde told reporters that in 2009, a global outbreak of H1N1 (human infection with swine flu) has benefited from this mechanism. For the first time in human history, China has successfully achieved manual control. According to the original prevention and control situation, this Respiratory infectious diseases that were too fast and unblocked have not broken out in large areas in China.

Moreover, China took the lead in developing a new influenza A vaccine in only 87 days, becoming the first country in the world to approve the market for a vaccine.

The prevention and control work should start from the grassroots level and should not be relaxed. It is necessary to pay close attention and raise vigilance —— this is a viewpoint repeatedly emphasized by Hou Yunde.

Netease Technology: Special epidemic situation at the grassroots level, such as the epidemic situation in a village, the outbreak of a blind spot such as a horned horn, how to find it? If someone is infected with an epidemic and does not take the initiative to check, what should I do?

Hou Yunde: Judging from fever, infectious diseases are contagious during the incubation period. The incubation period is usually one to seven days. Most people are about three days. Even during the incubation period, they may not feel the disease. This time, the incubation period is If you don't have a fever, you are actually sick and don't have a fever. He doesn't know that he has an infectious disease. (To the end) 80% of the infectious diseases are going to have a fever. If you have a fever, you should not run around. The most important thing is not to go to places where there are many people, but it is also harmful to others, and the victims are still the majority.

Netease Technology: What should I do?

Hou Yunde: By vigorous publicity, the government health department should widely and timely publicize the knowledge and dynamics of infectious disease prevention and control.

At present, China has established a reporting mechanism for legal infectious diseases from the state to the sub-provincial level. Every month, the competent health authorities at all levels will issue a unified calculation to inform the public about the incidence of various infectious diseases. Increased transparency and symmetry of information.

The adoption of the prevention and control measures for early diagnosis and early treatment has made Hou Yunde believe that in China, “there is basically no such situation as Sas.” ”

According to the information reviewed by NetEase Technology reporters, China has gradually taken the initiative in responding to infectious diseases in the 10 years since the establishment of the major special infectious disease program. Hou Yunde, a partner of the major project, said that China has established a detection technology system for identifying 300 known pathogens within 72 hours, if “enemies” is one of the 300 pathogens within 3 days. You can find out the enemy's situation and take action in a targeted manner. At the same time, major projects have been the first in the world to discover more than 1,600 viruses and more than a dozen bacteria, and these technical reserves will come in handy when looking for & rsquo; enemies & rsquo; ”

Most vaccines are safe

Another important topic that Hou Yunde and Netease Technology reporters exchange is the Chinese vaccine.

According to the data, China is the world's largest producer of human vaccines. The competent authorities have issued 500-100 million bottles of vaccines per year, ranking first in the world.

At the same time, there are problems in the production and sales of vaccines. This year, the Changchun Longevity Vaccine case broke out. The latest news from Xinhua News Agency stated that the draft vaccine management law has been submitted to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress for deliberation. It is revealed that the draft will incorporate the development, production and storage of major disease vaccines into the national strategy. To reflect the most stringent regulations, the draft proposes that the state implements an access system that is stricter than general drug production for vaccine production.

Hou Yunde first affirmed the application of vaccines in China. He told NetEase Technology reporters, “Our country is vaccinating, and the World Health Organization knows that it has controlled many infectious diseases and praised us. ”

As for the quality of vaccines that the public is concerned about, Hou Yunde said this:

Netease Technology: As you mentioned earlier, there is also a risk of vaccination. Is it a good vaccine or is it not good?

Hou Yunde: The vaccine depends on different situations, some inactivated vaccines, and an abnormal immune response will occur after the fight. This is the case, but it is a minority and should not be used as an excuse for not taking the vaccine. Vaccination is the most important thing. Our country controls the epidemic of many infectious diseases through vaccines. From an economic point of view, this is also the cheapest. How much do you spend on a vaccine? How much do you have to spend a disease?

Vaccination is the most effective and cheapest. This is very important. China has so many people, mainly relying on vaccines, and China's vaccine level is still at the international advanced level, and it is not behind.

Netease Technology: How to see vaccine safety issues?

Hou Yunde: It should be said that most vaccines are safe. In the production process, our country has a special management organization, which is subject to inspection. If you do not approve, you cannot use it. There are several layers in the operation, there are central in the center, and there are local places. As long as the vaccine comes out and is used on the crowd, various safety tests have been done, approved by the state, can be clinically implemented, and there is a management vaccine production and The process of vaccination. This kind of organization exists, no problem.

NetEase Technology: In recent years, there have been cases of fake vaccines. Events like Changchun Changsheng are worrying. How can we avoid this kind of thing happening?

Hou Yunde: The case of Changchun Changsheng is a case and should be solved. The vaccine can't be caused by Changchun. Many people have questioned questions and should not ask question marks. In general, the control of infectious diseases depends mainly on vaccines. Most vaccines are safe and unsafe countries will not approve them.

Everything can be innovative, not to say that every vaccine is perfect, there are problems to improve, any vaccines, there are areas that need improvement, not static.

The mood is still flying in his later years.

data-w=550

There are still more than half a year old and 90 years old. In October, when I finished my speech in Beijing, I hurriedly arrived. Hou Yunde quickly returned to Shenzhen. After that, Netease Technology reporters contacted him several times on work. Back, the old gentleman is a man, and he speaks a mandarin of Su Wu. The conversation is both peaceful and stimulating. But when he is looking for him, he is willing to answer and he is tired of it. One interesting detail is that when he is looking for him, he often answers four times. Word plus an exclamation mark ——“No problem! ”

Talking about the prevention and control of infectious diseases, Hou Yunde is in the state of the whole person, and there is a spirit in his bright eyes. The old gentleman's language is not rich, and more often he is good at professional expression, but his kind of flying is always clear. Following the award this year, CCTV "News 1+1" made a program for him. After the reform and opening up for 40 years, in December, CCTV Health gave him a short video, Hou Yunde in the video, although the year Already old, but facing the camera, in the wind and robes, the eyes are condensed in front, the vicissitudes of life, and more graceful style.

In the video, Mr. Lao said with a tone of voice: “It’s very happy to do research, because there are new things found, foreigners have not found it, I found it for him, foreigners found the mistake, I corrected him. It is. ”

Sources cited: China Business Intelligence Network, CCTV Health, CCTV News 1+1, Xinhua News Agency, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Science and Technology Daily, etc.

This article from the micro-channel public number: NEW YORK Scientist (ID: WYKXR163), Author: Zhang Jianfeng, planning: Yangxia Qing, Guo Hao, formerly titled "90 years old & ldquo; & rdquo ;! not old The Chinese scientist is still running for AIDS prevention

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