Shanghai light source panorama. Photo by Hu Weicheng
Source: Chinese Journal of Science
In the past ten years, the “Dongfeng”, which is based on Shanghai Light Source and cooperated with the city and the construction of large scientific equipment, is flowing in Zhangjiang, Pudong: the national protein facility has been put into use; the 16 lines of the second phase of Shanghai Light Source Station have been smoothly advanced; The X-ray free electron laser device and the living cell imaging device are continuously optimized; the civil engineering of the hard X-ray free electron laser device has been fully launched; the Baipuwa ultra-short ultra-short laser device is also stepping up the research... By 2025, these devices have been fully built. At that time, the Zhangjiang Comprehensive National Science Center will become the most densely populated place in the world.
How to connect these large scientific devices into a "friend circle" that works together and closely cooperates?
A feasible way is to establish a large scientific research center, emulate the Helmholtz Association of Germany, break the "wall" between large scientific devices, so that they can be combined into a fist, for the Chinese and even the world's technological innovation, release more powerful the power of.
Taking the opportunity of the classification reform of the Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences as an opportunity, in November 2014, the Chinese Academy of Sciences President's Office approved the establishment of the Shanghai University Science Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences - to build the Chinese version of "Helmholtz", and took the first step of the new journey.
In February 2018, the first meeting of the Zhangjiang Laboratory Management Committee was on the scene.Image Source:Chinese Academy of Sciences Shanghai Branch official website
The rise of Zhang Jiang:
Scientific research heavy equipment to build scientific and technological innovation landmarks
In May of this year, David de Belange, a professor at the University of California, Santa Cruz, came to Shanghai for experiments because of the praise of his colleagues for the excellent performance of the Shanghai light source.
Once upon a time, Chinese scientists could only stand outside the door of the "World Synchrotron Radiation Club," and it was difficult to conduct experimental research by applying for a large foreign scientific installation.
In December 1993, three academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ding Dazhao, Fang Shouxian and Yan Dingchang, proposed to the state proactively: "Building a third-generation synchrotron radiation source in China."
In March 1995, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Shanghai Municipal Government agreed to put this large scientific device on the river.
During the long period of more than ten years of project establishment, pre-research and construction, the Chinese Academy of Sciences has mobilized a large number of elite soldiers to come to the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences to participate in the construction of light sources.
In May 2009, Shanghai Light Source was built. Today, after ten years of operation, Shanghai Light Source ranks among the top in the number and quality of output in the third-generation light source of the same kind in the world.
Since last year, Shanghai Light Source has accepted applications from scientists around the world and has served 177 researchers in 16 countries.
The giant nautilus, the synchrotron radiation with an electron energy of up to 3.5G electron volts, is led out by a beamline station from the 432-meter storage ring.
Shanghai Light Source has become an indispensable experimental platform to support the leading edge of many disciplines in China and the development of high technology.
After ten years of stable operation, the number of users has increased from the first batch of 20 to a total of 24,684, and the company has provided 5,500 hours of stable supply to users every year. The experiment supports users to publish more than 5,000 papers, including more than 1,500 high-level papers (SCI District 1), including He published 96 articles in Nature, Science and Cell.
Shanghai Light Source directly contributes to the rapid development of structural biology in China.
Before 2009, there were only 99 protein crystal structures analyzed by domestic synchrotron radiation devices, and now relying on Shanghai light sources, there are now as many as 3,775.
Among them, the analysis of important proteins such as Ebola virus and avian influenza virus has made important contributions to the resolution of global public health events.
With the help of the Shanghai light source, Chinese physicists discovered the fern fermion and the triple degenerate fermion. This is the first discovery in the world of physics in the past 90 years. It is of great value for the development of low-energy electronic devices at room temperature, and can also be used in the design and manufacture of quantum computers.
In the fields of new energy, new materials, environmental protection, and cultural relics protection, Shanghai Light Source has frequently helped users to make breakthroughs.
Academician Bao Xin of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the use of Shanghai Light Source to carry out nano-catalysis research, became the first result of Shanghai Light Source to board "Science".
Just as the Shanghai Light Source was open to users, the protein facility began construction and passed the national acceptance in July 2015.
As the first comprehensive scientific device in the global life sciences field with various large-scale scientific instruments and advanced technology integration as the core, as of the end of 2018, the protein facilities provided a total of 467,000 hours of user machine time; experimental research supported the publication of 714 SCI papers. Including 39 articles published in Nature, Science and Cell.
In order to enhance the original innovation capability and support major scientific and technological breakthroughs, in recent years, the Chinese Academy of Sciences has continued to construct a number of large scientific devices in Shanghai. A large-scale, most complete and most powerful photonic science device group is gradually being formed. It will effectively enhance China's international voice in relevant research fields.
At the same time, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Shanghai Municipal Government jointly set up a world-class science city and a world-class laboratory to create a high-level innovation base.
It is expected that by 2025, after the completion of these major facilities and innovation institutions, more and more scientists from all over the world will come to Shanghai to carry out cutting-edge scientific research. The prototype of a “scientific research town” has already emerged.
The “scientific research town” will also be a talented highland. The large scientific device provides a broad stage for the growth of all kinds of scientific and technological personnel, becoming the "incubator" of top scientists and the "dish dish" of high-level scientific and technological talents.
This year, Shanghai Light Source has two outstanding users who have just been elected foreign academicians of the American Academy of Sciences.
“In the past ten years, Shanghai Light Source has gathered a group of outstanding scientists and teams.” Director of the Shanghai University Science Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, former director of the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Zhao Zhentang, deputy director of the Shanghai Institute of Advanced Studies of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said that among the users of Shanghai Light Source There are 53 academicians of the two academies, and more than 400 teams led by scientists from the "Hundred Talents Program", "Jie Qing" and "Thousand Talents Program".
Shanghai Light Source Experimental Hall Photo by Hu Weicheng
Break the wall:
Large scientific installations build a global circle of friends
Overlooking Zhangjiang Science City, when a large scientific device emerged, scientists couldn't help but think about the question: Will these large scientific devices become "islands" of scientific research and innovation because of the different main units of construction?
Even if each facility is “strengthen”, if it is difficult to form a joint force, it will not be able to exert its most powerful potential.
Zhao Zhentang said that breaking the "wall" between large scientific installations and making all the large installations go hand in hand and to develop their respective strengths is the "initial heart" for the establishment of the Shanghai Science Center and its mission.
In 2014, the Chinese Academy of Sciences initiated the classification reform of the Institute. Established a large science center and became a proposal put forward by the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics responsible for running Shanghai's light source to the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
In December of that year, the Chinese Academy of Sciences party group decided to establish a large science center in Shanghai to explore the new operating mechanism of large scientific device clusters.
"We have done a lot of preparatory work, but the 'breaking wall' on the institutional mechanism is not an easy task." Zhao Zhentang said that the original idea was to establish a photonic science center, but the listing of the Zhangjiang laboratory and the overall transfer of the Shanghai light source gradually Expand to form a new pattern.
As a new round of cooperation between the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Shanghai Municipality, Zhangjiang Lab is committed to combining the disciplinary fundamental advantages and talent team advantages of the Chinese Academy of Sciences with Shanghai's outstanding reform advantages, innovation advantages and international advantages. The “fertile soil” and “homeland” of the growth of the national laboratory.
In May 2017, the party group of the Chinese Academy of Sciences made a decision to transfer all the large scientific devices of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Shanghai to the Shanghai Institute of Advanced Studies of the Chinese Academy of Sciences to support the construction of the Zhangjiang laboratory.
In September of that year, Zhangjiang Lab was listed. Shanghai University Science Center became an affiliated institution, and it was officially launched by the Shanghai Institute of Advanced Studies to create a “breaking wall” for “big friends”.
“This is just the first step in our joint exploration of large scientific devices.” Zhao Zhentang said that to build a world-class shared experimental platform, it must have first-class operating facilities, efficient and open sharing mechanisms, and advanced technical support and management services. The close integration of “device-method-research” is conducive to improving experimental capabilities and producing significant and important results.
"Therefore, it is very important to build and stabilize a high-level operation and maintenance team. In the face of the situation of Zhang Jiang's 'four sides of the song' digging people, we still need to do more exploration on the cohesive team." Zhao Zhentang said that there are outstanding talents. With a high level of operation and maintenance team, we can continuously improve the technical support conditions of user experiments (including professional laboratories, sample preservation and preparation, data storage and processing, etc.), and improve the management service level (including project application, approval, and implementation). With experimental services, etc.).
On this basis, the large scientific installations can face the world's scientific and technological frontiers, face the major needs of the country, face the main battlefield of the national economy, openly cooperate in all directions, focus on the key points, strengthen industrial and regional radiation, and continuously produce major results.
Now, Shanghai University Science Center has a capable research team of more than 600 people.
Through the construction and operation of synchrotron radiation source, protein facility, free electron laser device and beam line station, this team has become an international science and technology powerhouse for the design and construction of large scientific facilities, new technology research and development, facility operation and maintenance and cutting-edge research.
Shanghai Light Source has set a world record at the speed of “three years from the groundbreaking to the light”.
Zhao Zhentang said that they will make good use of the opportunity of the classification reform of the institute, and build a large science center as the starting point. Based on Zhangjiang, the world's most intensive large scientific device group, it will open up a complete mechanism for the opening of China's major research facilities to the society. A national replicable and scalable model.
National Protein Science Research (Shanghai) Facilities
Create a scientific research "ideal country"
If scientific research has an "ideal country," it should look like this: a scientist raises a major scientific issue, scientists from different fields help him break down the problem, design a series of experiments, and then take advantage of the first class Great scientific installations, exploring the true knowledge of science in the best and fastest way.
The Chinese Academy of Sciences has been striving to build in Zhangjiang, Shanghai. It is precisely such a “strong magnetic field” that gathers global innovation resources and the “origin of origin” of innovation achievements.
In this rising and innovative "ideal city", it is of great significance to explore the establishment of a scientific research "ideal country."
Coordinated management of large scientific devices to maintain their superior performance, the ultimate goal is to serve users.
Zhao Zhentang believes that emulating the Helmholtz Association of Germany and creating the Chinese version of Helmholtz is the future development goal of the Shanghai Science Center.
Founded in 2001, the Helmholtz Association of Germany has 18 national research centers. Its biggest feature is that it breaks the operational framework of the various legal person research centers in the past, and also breaks through the model of government departments leading the management of science and technology funds.
Guided by major scientific issues, it implements five-year scientific and technological mission planning led by researchers within the Federation and allocates research funding allocated by the state according to the international competitiveness of the program.
"For the joint operation of large scientific device clusters, the Helmholtz Association is a good reference." Zhao Zhentang revealed that in the past two years, Shanghai University Science Center has established a unified management system for fund management, job appointment, and project implementation. , laid a solid foundation for the upcoming alliance of large scientific installations.
First of all, if a research institution wants to enter the big science center, it must have the qualification to join. Zhao Zhentang said that having “qualification to join” means “having a large scientific device”.
For example, four research institutes that have joined the Shanghai Science Center have large scientific devices that have been built or are being built. In addition to Shanghai light source and protein facilities, there are also Shanghai Institute of Microsystems and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai University of Science and Technology. The former invested in the construction of two beamline stations in Shanghai Light Source, and the latter was the project legal entity of the hard X-ray free electron laser device.
Second, within the Shanghai Science Center, a process to provide a “one-door” experimental solution will eventually be established.
He Jianhua said, "In the future, scientists will bring scientific questions, and the center will gather experts from various fields to decompose the problems together and then rationally arrange the use of machines on large devices to solve the most efficient scientific problems."
Zhou Jiahai, a researcher at the Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, is a "double-material" user of Shanghai's light source and protein facilities. His students ran to Zhang Jiang for experiments almost every month.
"If you can complete all the experiments once, it will greatly improve the efficiency of scientific research." Zhou Jiahai hopes that the Science Center will launch a customized service for the "Experimental Package".
Researchers are at work. National Protein Science Research (Shanghai) Facilities Photo courtesy
In the end, Shanghai University Science Center will face the country's major strategic needs, relying on the world's first-class large scientific device clusters, forming a research base with a large installation group as the core, a cross-research platform as a bridge, and a high-level scientific and technical team. The construction and management model of Zhangjiang Comprehensive National Science Center has developed into a comprehensive national laboratory.
Zhao Zhentang revealed that Shanghai Major Science Center has deployed a series of high-end user projects in the fields of photonics, life sciences, and material sciences for major national strategic needs and major frontier scientific issues. In the future, it will conduct more extensive and in-depth cooperation with global scientists. .