Today, Wei Xi and you talk about the wonderful story of Google CEO Sanda Pei guess ——
First, the absolute outstanding young people
Many stories tell the story of how the protagonist is poor and hard to finally counterattack, or the protagonist is born with a protagonist, a golden key, and an extremely superior growth environment, butIn fact, most of the beginnings of the story are unremarkable and unremarkable. Today's protagonist, Sonda Peggy, is like this.
Picha was born in 1972.Chennai, IndiaA family who is not wealthy, his father is an electrical engineer, and his mother is a stenographer. When he was born, the parents would not think that their children would one day become the CEO of the planet’s most powerful technology company. Their houses are not big. When he was a child, he and his brother could only sleep in the living room.
Chennai Street View, India
But this is a family that values education. Piguet has worked hard on the Indian Institute of Technology. This is one of the top universities in India. From the perspective of admission rate, it is no less difficult than any other famous university in the world.
The university's major is metallurgical engineering, but he is very interested in IT. He wrote a board game during his studies. He graduated with a Stanford scholarship. After receiving his master's degree in materials, he was short-lived at Stanford. The chemical company worked as an engineer and product manager, then went to Wharton to take an MBA. After graduating from Wharton, he joined McKinsey as a consultant.
22-year-old Picha at Stanford Hostel
Indian Institute of Technology, Master of Stanford, Wharton MBA, McKinsey & Company—— These tags have been excellent for anyone, and this shows that Picha is an absolute leader among young people, but the skin of the engineering project does not want to take a traditional elite. On the road, he has a bigger dream.
So on April 1st, 2004 (yes, that is April Fool's Day, the day when Gmail was born) joined Google.At that time, Google had already been listed, and the business has become more stable. How can the science and engineering man from McKinsey open the situation?
Second, from the toolbar to Chrome: the edge to the center
Piguet joined Google as a product manager responsible for Google Toolbar.This is a browser plugin that allows users to quickly access Google search while browsing the web. It can't be said that this is an insignificant product, but for Google, which is gradually full-fledged, the toolbar is definitely not extremely important.
Google's early toolbar plugin ——“google toolbar”
But in this relatively insignificant position, Pi Gu is accumulating strength,He quickly adapted to Google's engineer culture: an important rule of action is —— killing chickens with a knifeTherefore, even some relatively ordinary positions have many outstanding geniuses. As a product manager who does not write code directly, Pi Gu will soon be able to mingle with these geniuses and quickly advance the project. In the meantime, the tools of Pi Guai The column played an important role in Google’s battle to defeat Yahoo.
The difference between a distinguished product manager and a general product manager is ——An outstanding product manager is not just a good job in the job, he will also think deeply about the future of the product from a strategic perspective.
The work experience of the toolbar has deepened Pi Gu’s understanding of the search business. He deeply knows that to achieve the ultimate search, not to optimize the search results, but technology, user habits, competitive landscape, entrance The comprehensive results of the user experience and even the promotion strategy, the MBA-born advantage of his strategic thinking at this time is revealed, and Picha deeply analyzes the pattern of the search business at the time ——
At that time, Microsoft relied on the bundled strategy to win the battle with Netscape's browser. In that century, Microsoft, the software gene, relied on its own monopoly to win the Netscape, so the ambitious Microsoft was confident in promoting the Internet business. In fact, Microsoft actually had its own search service ——MSN search in 1998, but the search results were provided by another company, Inktomi, but Microsoft’s intention to be an independent search engine never stops.It has an important advantage in that it has an absolute market share in the browser field, and the browser is the entrance to the search.Pei guessed this danger.
So Pi guessed to the management to suggest that Google enter the browser market. At first, the proposal was not adopted. Google’s then chairman, Schmidt, witnessed how the rookie Netscape lost in Microsoft’s struggle. He said that Google is still a startup. The company, and the development of a browser requires a workload that is no less than an operating system. This bet is too big.However, the guess is not discouraged. He is actively concerned about the company's possible browser-related projects, such as html performance, JS engine and so on.
The turnaround took place on October 9, 2006, and Pudge’s fears finally happened.Microsoft's IE browser changed the default search engine from Google to its own search without warningGoogle lost a huge traffic portal overnight.
According to outside estimates, Google’s traffic was lost by a third. The hesitant management finally realized that Pudge’s fears were real and therefore determined to be a browser, and the Chrome project officially launched.
In the toolbar project, Piguet's outstanding performance in product capabilities and management capabilities was seen by Google executives, while browser projects and toolbar projects have a clear relevance. Pigues became the head of the Chrome project, from product manager to strategy. The project leader, Pi guess only spent more than two years, thanks to its long-term exercise, strong product management, extraordinary strategic vision and proactive spirit.
However, the difficulty of a browser project is an order of magnitude higher than that of a toolbar. It is important to know that even a geek-like Google is officially released two years later.So how does skin guess lead the chaser to the throne step by step?
Third, create Chrome: How do chasers attack?
In the Internet world, when your product is a little better than others, you can’t usually beat your opponent becauseUsers have conversion costs, and only if your product is better than others can occupy the market.
And Google often does such a subversive thing, such as Gmail, when other mailbox providers still only provide tens of M of storage space, Gmail directly announced that it provides 1G space, to reverse the battle.
However, can a new browser quickly end the battle with a trick?
The answer is impossible. The browser is a very high-threshold product. It has a lot of basic work, such as performance, privacy, security, etc.There is almost no possibility of wanting a quick win, and Pigues understands this profoundly.
Therefore, his first important action is to gather talents. The browser is a huge project. Pei guesses that each module has absolutely leading talents. He effectively integrates Google's top technical experts and recruits many super-class ones. Engineers, super class is not a beautiful word, and the luxury team members of Picha include:
Founding team of Page, Brin, and Chrome
These first-rate talents have laid a solid foundation for the success of Chrome —&pdash; know that people are always the first, and first-class products must come from first-class teams.
At the same time, in order to do a good job of Chrome, Google has spared no effort in the acquisition. Google has acquired a company in North Carolina, Skia, to develop a vector graphics library;
Acquired application security company GreenBorder to enhance Chrome's security level;
Acquired a small browser called Reqwireless to supplement the core code;
Even Chrome shares some of the code that Google acquired for Android.Not all complex systems need to go from 0 to 1. Integrating the best resources can make the most of it.Pei guessed this.
The next step is to define the product. As a chaser, Pigues must make enough innovation in Chrome to effectively impress users.What innovations does Chrome make compared to other competitors?
First of allIt takes "fast" as the first product feature, and Gu Gu knows that this is the core experience of browsing. From birth to now, Chrome has been absolutely leading in various speed tests. It is not easy to do this fast. , it benefits from Google's long-term technical accumulation;
SecondIt's the first time that multiple options are displayed and run independently. Unlike traditional browsers that open a new address to open a new window, Chrome opens multiple options in one window and, more importantly, thanks to the sandbox it acquired. Isolation technology, Chrome These multiple options are completely independent, one crash does not affect the other, of course, there is a price to do so, Chrome has been a memory killer since its inception.
An important job of product managers is to weigh the priorities and costs.In fact, it is worthwhile to experience eating performance.Under normal circumstances, ordinary people will not open more than 10 pages (do not accept rebuttals, I know that many of my readers open dozens of web pages at the same time, but unfortunately, as an Internet practitioner, you are not Chrome more than 10 Typical among 100 million users);
thirdLike other Google products, Chrome offers an extremely simple interface, and many people think that the interface is just a skinless, but not technical, butThe interface is indeed the most intuitive impression of the average user.The first time I used Chrome to see a simple interface, I feel that this browser is very light. In fact, most users pay attention to the web page when browsing the web. Many redundant functions can be hidden. Browser Exposing the function to the interface is complicated. It is a kind of “unfriendly existence”.
fourth, Chrome has also done a lot of valuable innovations at the product level ——
Combine the search bar and the address bar into one, that is, you can search directly by entering keywords in the address bar;
The account system has been strengthened, as long as the browsing, collection, skin and usage habits of different devices of a Google account can be seamlessly synchronized;
Strengthened the stealth mode, which captures the immediate needs of the otaku, who affectionately call the mode "sex mode".
Crazy fans of Chrome
At lastChrome built a developer-friendly system with its own technical barriers, which gives Chrome a rich and usable plug-in, while Chrome enhances HTML5's performance and mobile experience.
Chrome also open sourced the Chromium project.Interestingly, Microsoft's Edge browser recently released a version of Chromium-based kernel, which may be excellent enough to convince opponents.
Note that every advantage above Chrome is not a disruptive innovation, but a typical incremental innovation, each dimension is only a little stronger than the opponent, and when multiple dimensions are combined, an experience is achieved. Good enough product,You see, the story of the Internet transcendence is not entirely a story of subversive innovation.
Chrome is of course very good, and all the storytellers will actually describe how prominent the protagonist itself is, but this is not the whole truth.In fact, Chrome can be inseparable from having a powerful Google dad.
In such a node in 2008, Google is absolutely overlord in the search field.People can't do without Google, and as long as you log in to Google without using Chrome, Google will kindly remind you: use Chrome for a better experience. In this sense, Chrome is a rich second generation, but he is A rich second generation who is hard enough and good enough.
Chrome's rapid rise replaces the market position of ie
After the battle of Chrome, Pi Gu proved his strategy, execution and innovation ability.However, to go further, Pi guess still needs to prove himself in more dimensions.
Fourth, in charge of Google: one of the highest paid executives
After Chrome’s success, Picha was further recognized by Google’s management, soAfter the departure of the head of Google APPs in 2011, Pichai took over the department and was promoted to vice president.
In 2013, Andrew Dibin, the head of Android, unexpectedly left Google (after being proved that Andy Rubin was suspected of having an office sexual harassment scandal, Google concealed this fact when Rubin left), so the skin Guess is the head of the Android department, and Android is one of the company's most important incremental divisions.
This is very important for the further promotion of Pigue becauseAt such a time point around 2013, it was the highest increase in smartphone shipments.Android became the key to Google's transition from the PC era to the mobile era, and Picha once again stood at the forefront of Google.
It's hard to say that this opportunity comes down to luck or strength alone, but that may be right.
Andy Rubin is the dropout, and each company has office politics, but to a different extent, according to a Google employee at Quora:Pitcher has few enemies in the company. He always leads the company's policies to the benefit of his team, and at the same time does not harm the interests of other teams.
This is due to his modest character. He is pragmatic, peaceful and good at coordination. Interestingly, Microsoft CEO Nadela, also born in India, is also evaluated by many internal employees with the same characteristics. Therefore, he is not strong, aggressive, powerful, peaceful, pragmatic and even appropriate synergy.
Chrome is the increment of Google in the PC era, and Android is the increment of Google Mobile era.When your job is the company's incremental, not the stock, your importance is magnified, and you can prove yourself in the incremental position and you will be promoted.
In October 2014, Page handed over core products such as search, maps, and research and development of, Google, advertising products to Pichai.
On the 8th of 2015, when Google split up and reorganized, Page announced his promotion to Pichai as the first CEO; of the new company.
In 2018, Pitcher earned 350,000 shares of Google stock with a market capitalization of about $380 million, making him one of the highest paid executives in Silicon Valley.
You can understand that this is a pity for Google, or that Google has to do so, because Microsoft and Twitter both tried to dig horns before Pitcher became CEO, according to Business insder.
5. Greater Challenge: Keep Google's Great Ship Forward
Everyone has his own ability circle, and whether he can break through his ability circle differentiates ordinary people from cattle people. Pigues is from product manager to project manager to CEO of the giant ship of Google. The breakthrough of ability circle is absolutely an important change.
As a global technology leader, the situation Google faces will make any mature professional manager in Silicon Valley anxious:
1. Google's revenue depends heavily on advertising revenue.And the proportion of advertising revenue in GDP is almost unchanged, that is, the total plate of advertising is ceiling. The rapid growth of Google in the past has benefited from the transformation of traditional advertising into digital advertising. This trend is slowing down and the growth rate is decreasing year by year. Google needs new money printers.
2. Google is facing tremendous anti-monopoly pressure in search and Android.(Although Google strongly denies this), the European Union has imposed an anti-trust fine of $7.7 billion over the past 17 months on Google, while U.S. lawmakers are seriously drafting bills to consider splitting up big companies like Google.
3. Google does not have an advantage in some key areas:Google is behind Amazon in cloud computing, Microsoft, and Amazon in the voice field. Google entering social sector announced closing, and Google Home performance in hardware is not prominent.
4. Google's privacy issues are becoming increasingly prominentIn spite of the direct scandal that has not been analyzed by Facebook's Cambridge, Google's product system is huge, and a bug in Google has led to a release of 52.5 million Google account information, which I've been summoned to Congress for questioning on privacy issues.
5. AI business, which has high expectations, has not yet been reflected in revenue.Even YouTube's lack of intelligent advertising algorithms has led to many brand ads embedded in violent, extreme and pornographic videos, leading to the withdrawal of Starbucks, Procter & Gamble and other brands from their Google launches.
6. Internal Management Problems after Google's GrowthIn 2018, Google employees staged a protest against the company's inadequate handling of sexual harassment and sexism, while Google contract workers repeatedly protested that they had been treated unfairly.
7. Google quitChinaSince then, it has been excluded from the world's fastest-growing emerging market, and how to re-enter China is facing various internal and external uncertainties.
Pitcher himself was questioned by Congress
These are the direct challenges Pitcher faces as CEO of Google's technology giant ship.On these issues, Google has offensive and defensive.
The acquisition of the smart home brand, Nest, turned off the poorly performing Google, the launch of the phone's hardware brand Pixel, the acquisition of Deedmind's launch of Alpha Go, the launch of Google Home and the Amazon Echo competition, the release of the AI framework, Tenor Flow, and the announcement of a cloud game...
Although Google has still had a lot of products that haven't been successful in recent years,
But Google, led by Pitcher, has been trying to maintain high frequency. As CEO, he has to maintain the innovative core of Google, a geek company, in a complex situation.
Google is a great company that benefits a lot from its visionary management. Page asked Page to pick up Google and take charge of Google X's innovation business (including autopilot, Future lab, etc.) because he had a deep understanding of the law of the technology industry.
Subversive innovation would never have been promoted if it hadn't been for the boss to break the original interest pattern from the top.So Page chose the hardest road. He wanted to continue to lead Google across discontinuity, which is the real entrepreneurship, and Pitcher is his strongest backing.
Well, after reading this article, I want to emulate Pitcher's experience and ideas and become CEO's product managers to the top of their lives.Wake up, finish drawing the prototype in your hand, and there are a bunch of Bugs waiting for you to deal with!