Observing the buoy station at sea. Xinhua News Agency
Seeing the micro-knowledge, making predictions about typhoons and issuing early warning information depends to a large extent on the “National Global Ocean Stereo Observing Network” that has been established in China. The observation network is a large-scale system, including the national marine station network, the marine radar station network, the snorkeling standard network, the seabed observation network, the surface drifting buoy network, and the profile drifting buoy network. Through these networks, information on marine environmental factors such as sea temperature, ocean currents, and ocean waves can be obtained from time to time. Based on this, comprehensive analysis and judgment will be conducted to timely issue typhoon, hurricane, storm surge, and tsunami and other disaster intrusion warnings, service fishery fishing, ocean transportation, Production activities such as offshore oil exploration.
Satellite view of the sea
Recently, the National Global Ocean Stereo Observing Network has ushered in two "Star" members, which are the Ocean One C satellite and the Ocean No. 2 B satellite. In September and October 2018, they were launched into the air, and then completed the on-orbit test and officially delivered the user into the operational application. As an important part of the global ocean stereoscopic observation network, the satellite ocean view (monitoring) measurement system is mainly based on marine satellites, taking into account other satellite data applications, serving the ocean view (monitoring) measurement business system, mainly by a series of marine satellites (including Load), satellite ground application system, maritime calibration and authenticity inspection field.
By using various types of remote sensors to detect marine environment information, ocean satellites can provide a wide range of long-term observations of the global ocean, providing a source of data that cannot be replaced by other means of observation for human understanding and understanding of the ocean. After years of unremitting efforts, China has initially formed a series of satellites of ocean water color, marine power environment and ocean surveillance and monitoring, represented by the series of "Ocean No. 1", "Ocean No. 2" and "High Score No. 3" satellites, and established complementary advantages. Marine Remote Sensing Satellite Observation System.
According to the "13th Five-Year Plan for the Development of Marine Satellite Business", by 2020, China will develop and launch more than ten marine satellites, which can be used in marine environmental resources, marine disaster prevention and mitigation, marine economy, marine ecology, and marine security. Provide a variety of multi-source marine environment information with different resolutions, different aging, and different types, widely used in meteorology, environment, transportation, agriculture and water conservancy.
Advance into the polar field
In 2019, China's first polar scientific research icebreaker, the "Snow Dragon 2", was successfully delivered, which is undoubtedly one of the most important events in the world's polar science research field. Its delivery means that China has formed a new pattern of “Shuanglong Exploration” that “Snow Dragon” and “Snowlong 2” cooperate to carry out polar exploration, which enhances the on-site support and support capability of China's polar scientific investigation. For the construction of China's global ocean stereoscopic observation network, the new pattern of “Shuanglong Exploration” will undoubtedly raise the observation capability of the polar seas to a new level.
As the two major cold sources of the Earth, the Arctic and the Arctic influence the global warm and cold process. The formation of stereoscopic observation capabilities in the polar regions including the polar seas is of great significance for mastering global climate change and analyzing the generation and development mechanism of major meteorological processes. China has always been committed to the establishment of polar and polar scientific research capabilities.
In the Antarctic expedition, from the first Antarctic expedition team sent in 1984, China has built the Great Wall Station, Zhongshan Station, Kunlun Station and Taishan Station. The fifth scientific research station is located in the Rossan area of the Antarctic and enters the construction stage. . Up to now, China has implemented 35 Antarctic expeditions. In the Arctic expedition, in July 2004, the Arctic Yellow River was established in the New Orleans area of Spitsbergen, Norway. So far, China has implemented nine Arctic exams. Ocean observation is one of the core contents of the Chinese Polar Science Examination. China has formed a three-dimensional ocean observation network consisting of station base, sea base, space base and ice base. It is particularly worth mentioning that during the ninth Arctic expedition in China in 2018, the Chinese expedition team successfully deployed two sets of sea-ice-air unmanned ice station observing systems in the ice zone, achieving the first for the Arctic ocean and sea. The full-element observation of ice and atmosphere will provide scientific data support for studying the process and mechanism of Arctic sea ice changes and accurately predicting the Arctic climate and sea ice trends. During the 34th Antarctic expedition in 2018, the Chinese expedition team conducted a geophysical survey in the Arctic Rossa Tranova Bay, acquiring seabed topography, ocean gravity, and magnetic data. This is the first time that the "Snow Dragon" ship has acquired the seabed topography and geomorphology data of the Antarctic Ocean by full coverage survey.
On August 4, 2012, Chinese expedition members deployed China's first polar large-scale ocean observation buoy in the Norwegian waters. Xinhua News Agency
System construction is an important guarantee for the establishment of ocean stereoscopic observation systems and the improvement of observation capabilities. In recent years, China has issued a series of related policy norms, including the Regulations on the Management of Ocean Observation and Forecast, the National Ocean Observing Network (2014~2020), and the Marine Meteorological Development Plan (2016~2025). It has played a significant role in increasing the investment in marine observation infrastructure, improving the advanced nature of observation equipment, building a marine observation system, standardizing marine observation management, and actively participating in international observation programs.
In 2016, the National “13th Five-Year Plan” clearly listed the “Global Ocean Stereo Observing Network” as a major project, requiring the overall planning of the National Ocean View (Supervision) survey network layout, and promoting the national marine environment real-time online monitoring system and sea appearance ( Supervision) The construction of the site will gradually form a global ocean stereoscopic (supervisory) survey system, and strengthen observational research on marine ecology, ocean currents, and marine meteorology.
After years of development, China's ocean observations have initially possessed the prototype of global ocean stereoscopic observation. At present, it has ocean observation capabilities including marine stations (points), radars, ocean observation platforms, buoys, mobile emergency observations, volunteer ships, standard ocean section surveys and satellites. Nearshore and offshore observations have initially covered jurisdictional waters, polar regions. The observations of the ocean hotspots have been carried out effectively, the satellite remote sensing observation methods have matured, the ocean observation data transmission efficiency has been greatly improved, and the ocean stereoscopic observation system has become more perfect.
The National Ocean Technology Center is the overall unit of the National Global Ocean Stereo Observing Network. The relevant person in charge of the technology center introduced that the “13th Five-Year Plan” is an important time node for the further improvement of China's ocean observation capability. Since then, the relevant parties have effectively integrated the national ocean view. (Supervise) testing capability, build a China Global Ocean Stereoscopic (Supervisory) Survey System with reasonable layout, appropriate scale and complete system, and form a business-oriented (supervisory) testing capability covering China's jurisdiction and key ocean areas to meet the development of the marine economy. The demand for marine observation (monitoring) is measured in many aspects such as marine disaster prevention and mitigation, marine ecological early warning, development and utilization of marine resources, and safety of maritime navigation.
Work together for mutual benefit
As the basis for supporting the development of the marine industry, ocean observation has been highly valued by countries all over the world. The UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, the World Meteorological Organization, the International Council of Scientific Unions and the United Nations Environment Programme initiated and organized the implementation of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) programme in 1993, which has now evolved into 13 regional The observing system targets a number of thematic observations, including global sea level observations, global ocean drifting buoy observations, global Argo buoy observations, and international ocean carbon observations.
According to Wang Wei, an associate researcher at the National Ocean Technology Center, under the guidance of global programs such as GOOS, international ocean observation has entered the multi-platform, multi-sensor integrated stereoscopic observation era, presenting a combination of operational observation systems and scientific observation and test plans. The combination of regional and global, the combination of “day-space-shore-sea” means, and the combination of international cooperation data contribution and sharing. The Global Ocean Observing System is gradually being built and the global ocean observation capability is steadily increasing.
Wang Wei said: "China will deeply participate in the international observation plan, focusing on the construction of a long-term observation system for monitoring key areas of concern such as the Pacific Typhoon Active Area and the El Niño Variation, and enhancing the circulation of the ocean, the generation and spread of typhoons, and the El Niño/La Nina phenomenon. Real-time monitoring and prediction of important ocean, climate and environmental change processes such as coral reef degradation and ocean acidification."
In addition, China will jointly build and maintain an island-reef ecological joint survey system with the small island countries that have participated in the “China-Small Island Countries Ocean Ministers Roundtable” and reach an agreement; and jointly build with the countries along the “21st Century Maritime Silk Road” and Maintain the marine observation (supervisory) measurement system, improve the marine disaster forecasting and observation capability of countries along the “Haisi”, and help achieve cooperation and win-win.