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Peking University: A Dreamland for Chips in China

via:博客园     time:2019/7/22 19:36:59     readed:848

Look at:The specialization of semiconductor industry in China began at Peking University, where a group of returnees gathered, thus nurturing the semiconductor rivers and lakes of Peking University.


In 1941, China played a tragic song of the extremely difficult war of resistance. Overhead bombing, ground artillery fire, high-temperature fire, dyke collapse, hunger and panic, many areas like purgatory on earth, life and death but between morning and evening.

But all this is not enough to disturb Southwest Associated University.

The school building is a thatched hut built on the wild mountains and mountains, the ground is pressed into soil, the square mouth of the dormitory is embedded with sticks and windows, and the roof of the classroom is covered with white iron. On a rainy day, the roof of the classroom is covered with white iron.


The Southwest Associated University School Building designed by Liang Sicheng Lin Huiyin and his wife

Life is even more difficult to the extreme, from teachers to students are poor, physics professor Wu Dayou to treat his wife, disguised as a beggar every day, to the food market to collect bones left over to his wife boil soup.

In such a background, Wu Dazhong received Huang Kun as a graduate student, Huang Kungang graduated from the physics department of Peking University, and was recommended by the famous metal internal friction research master, Ge Tsung, who was half-working and half-time in the southwest of the General Assembly.

At that time, the 22-year-old had been self-taught during the Peking University to gnaw off the starting quantum physics in China. Fourteen years later, represented by Huang Kun, a group of top semiconductor talents returned from overseas, stationed in Peking University, turned the compass of China's semiconductor industry.

This is a difficult and extraordinary journey, starting from nothing, involved in the catastrophe of destroying beliefs. In the endless darkness, every ancestor is like a ray of light, which intersects with the light, and gives birth to a new light. When the new glimmer devotes itself to China's semiconductor industry, looking around, it's almost dawn.

Talking about China's semiconductor talent base, people tend to think first of Tsinghua University in China and Berkeley, California, abroad. Chi-tung has carefully combed the Chip Talents of Tsinghua University. (Special draft: Tsinghua chip past)

And when we trace the origin of China's semiconductor business, we find that the PKU also plays a role in the development of the Chinese semiconductor industry, especially the start and development of the basic theory of semiconductor, as well as the subject construction and the talent output.

From Peking University to Peking University

In 1936, Huang Kun, 17 years old, college entrance examination Chinese score is a mess, with Tsinghua, Beiyang Institute of Technology missed.

The next year, he passed the escort examination and entered the Physics Department of Yanjing University. Fifteen years later, he took the lead and went to the platform of the Department of Physics of Peking University. In the hearts of hundreds of students, he buried the seeds of semiconductor physics research.


Huang Kun

Immersed in the realistic and pragmatic environment of Yanjing University, Huang Kun developed the habit of independent thinking. After graduating from undergraduate course, he came to the Department of Physics of Southwest Associated University and was taught by Wu Dayou, the father of Chinese physics.

Here, he met Yang Zhenning and two close friends, Zhang Shoulian, who were called Southwest Associated University.


National Archives Photo: Southwest Associated University Campus in the Northwest Suburb of Kunming

a day, a major and delicate contribution to the Copenhagen school,

I remember that Huang Kun was a fair debater. He had no habit of pitting his opponents.I remember his tendency to push his opinions to the extreme. Years later, looking back on the situation, I found that his tendency did not seem to exist in his physics research at all.


Three Swordsmen of Physics Department of Southwest United University

The Southwest United University brought Huang Kun not only precious friendship, but also exquisite and updated understanding of physics theory, and entered a new ideological realm for learning the mysteries of modern physics.

When I graduated, Chinese once again became a stumbling block on Huang Kun's way to study. The exam in the United States lost 24 points because of its Chinese. The composition of the examination in England was only written in three lines. As a result, because the examiner had a high vision and gave everyone a low score, Huang Kun picked up a leak and was found by the examiner.

In the past six years, Britain has become the first peak period of academic contribution in Huang Kun's life.

There, he worked with two Nobel laureate Mott (N.F. Mott) and Bonn (M. Born), and also had a physical student.


In the 1940s, Huang Kun took a picture with his colleagues as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Liverpool in the United Kingdom.

In the six years in the United Kingdom, Huang Kun has made a number of pioneering academic contributions: lattice dynamics, co-authored with the founder of lattice dynamics, is regarded as the founder of solid state physics.

At the same time, the desire to return home is becoming stronger and stronger.

Huang Kun wrote a letter to Yang Zhenning in April 1947.

On the one hand,Looking at the current chaotic situation in China, going back to study the natural impact, it is obvious that a scholar is not enough to hold on to the political situation, to bear hardships or not to please, it seems that there is no need

On the other hand,If we procrastinate abroad only to escape, it seems to be against our conscience. We feel from the bottom of our hearts that China has us and does not have our, makes a difference..

He thinks Yang Zhenning

At the end of 1951, Huang Kun left Britain and returned to Peking University through Hong Kong by boat.

At this time, according to the first transistor made by Bell Laboratory in the United States, it has been three years since the semiconductor industry in China was awaiting the emergence of an academic leader.

Teaching Peking University, Eight Pioneers Returning to the Sea


People in the press once asked Huang Kun: Is it a great loss not to carry out the research work for a long time?

Huang Kun does not agree with this view:

In 1954, Huang Kun was appointed director of the specialized Teaching and Research Department of solid Physics in the Physics Department of Peking University. Under his leadership, Huang Kun took the lead in the first semiconductor discipline.


Five Universities Joint Semiconductor Specialization Graduates in 1957

Beginning with Peking University, the overseas semiconductor forefathers represented by Huang Kun, Wang Shouwu, Tang Dingyuan, Hong Chaosheng, Xie Xide, Gao Dingsan, Lin Lanying and Huang Chang have contributed endless academic wealth to the three-foot platform and research fields respectively.

Only in 1956-1958, 241 students welcomed the graduation ceremony. After they left the gate of Peking University, they became the backbone of the first batch of semiconductor industry in China.

At that time, it was a milestone in the world semiconductor industry. the first integrated circuit in modern electronics industry was born in Texas instrument engineer Jack.

1. Huang Kun


Huang Kun

Huang Kun's academic resume is amazing. At the age of 30, he is well known in the world of physics. At 32, he finished the manuscript of Crystal Dynamics. At 36, he was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences of China (hereinafter referred to as academician). At 61, he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. The state awarded the highest national science and Technology Award in 2001.

For students, the most profound memory is Huang Kun's well-known teaching in the National Physics field. From the year of his establishment to the year of Huajia, Huang Kun has cultivated 26 years in the platform of the Department of Physics of Peking University. He has always been modest, but he has had a relatively satisfactory evaluation of his own teaching.

He is not confined to definitions and deductions, but guides students to have an in-depth understanding of physical problems. Whether giving lectures or making reports, Huang Kun adheres to two principles: one is to assume that the listener knows nothing about the questions he is talking about and is slow to respond; the other is to prepare lessons again every time despite repeated lectures.

Zhu Bangfen, academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and professor of Tsinghua University, worked with Huang Kun. In his memory, Huang Kun kept improving to the extreme. He prepared lessons very carefully, including how to write the blackboard, where to write the word, how big the word should be, what should be erased and what should not be erased. Zhu Bangfen once saw him, which is equivalent to using a paper to write many versions, that is, how to write the first batch on the blackboard, what to erase the second batch, what to retain.

Although he was elected a member of the Department of Science of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1955, it may be classified as


Huang Kun lectures to graduate students at Semiconductor Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Due to the limitation of the times, internal political interference, external technology blockade and multiple factors, semiconductor physics, as a basic scientific research, is the first to bear the brunt. Huang Kun's painstaking teaching work has been forced to stop, and the gap between China and the world in semiconductor research has become wider and wider.

Until 1977, the chief designer of reform and opening-up personally named Huang Kun, 60, as director of the Semiconductor Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Taking Huang Kun as the academic leader, the National Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Superlattice was established by Semiconductor Research Institute.

In 1980 s, Huang Kun entered the second peak period of academic contribution. Huang Kun, who retired to the second line, devoted more energy to scientific research and focused on the physics of semiconductor superlattics. in 1983, he and Zhu Bangfen proposed a model for calculating the optical phonon mode of superlattices, as well as the analytical expression of phantom, which is known internationally as

This is what M. Cardona, a famous international solid state physicist and former director of the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Max Planck Association of Germany, described Huang Kun.


Huang Kun won the 1995 Chen Jiageng Prize in Mathematical Science

Since the mid-1980s, Huang Kun has often felt dizzy, and later found brain atrophy, but his original research continued until 1996. In 1999, Huang Kun was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. On July 6, 2005, Huang Lao drove to the west of the crane in Beijing. He was 86 years old.

Five years later, the International asteroid Center issued a communiqu é that permanently named asteroid 48636

2. Four Pioneers of Semiconductor Discipline in China

The first semiconductor course in China was offered at Peking University. Huang Kun, Wang Shouwu, Tang Dingyuan and Hong Chaosheng participated in the course.

Wang Shouwu is one of the pioneers and founders of semiconductor science and technology in China. From the development of the first semiconductor laser in China, to the improvement of the yield of large-scale integrated circuits, to the completion of large-scale integrated circuit production experiments, Wang Shouwu has made valuable contributions to the development of semiconductor industry in China from semiconductor materials, equipment to production. Your contribution.

He was successively vice-president of the Semiconductor Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and director of 109 factories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In 1986, he initiated the establishment of the Microelectronics Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Wang Shouwu was honorary director of the Microelectronics Center for life. In 1980, he was elected member of the Academy of Sciences.


Wang Shouwu

Hong Chaosheng is a pioneer of cryogenic physics in China. He has received a bachelor's degree in Tsinghua Electrical Engineering Department and a doctor's degree from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has successively been a researcher at the Institute of Applied Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and a professor at Tsinghua, Peking University and China University of Science. He was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences in 1980.

Tang Dingyuan is the founder of infrared Science in China. Semiconductor infrared devices have been successfully applied to China's exploration and space remote sensing. He has worked in the Institute of Applied Physics, Semiconductor Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He has also been a professor and director of the Semiconductor Teaching and Research Department of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences in 1991.


Tang Dingyuan

Huang Kun and Wang Shouwu were born in 1919. Tang Dingyuan and Hong Dynasty were one year younger than them. Huang Kun and Hong Chaosheng are from Beijing, Wang Shouwu and Tang Dingyuan are from Jiangsu.

Among them, Wang Shouwu was born in Suzhou.

Except for Huang Kun, the other three students went to the United States to study.

In 1944, Wang Shouwu graduated from Tongji and studied abroad at his own expense. He was admitted to MIT, but he missed the time to go to the United States because of tuberculosis. The following year, he went to Purdue University to study engineering mechanics. After receiving his master's degree in 1946, he turned to physics and studied the properties of materials with quantum mechanics. He received his doctorate in February 1949.

In 1942, Tang Dingyuan graduated from the National Central University and taught until 1948. He went to the Department of Physics of the University of Minnesota in the United States and transferred to the Department of Physics of the University of Chicago in the same year. In 1950, Tang Dingyuan received a master's degree in physics from the University of Chicago.

Hong Chaosheng graduated from Tsinghua University in 1940 and worked as a telecommunications assistant in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Southwest Associated University. Five years later, he went to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to study for a doctorate. After graduating in 1948, he graduated at Purdue University in the United States, and then at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands.

When Hong Chaosheng discovered and proposed the theory of conduction of semiconductor impurity levels in 1950, the field of solid state physics had not been paid attention to. He had traveled to England to meet with Mott, the leader of international solid state physics at the University of Liverpool, England, who was also Mr. Huang Kun's mentor.


Hong Chaosheng

Wang Shouwu is one of the first four people to embark on the semiconductor research journey in China.

After the founding of New China, in the autumn of 1950, Wang Shouwu handled refugee certificates through the Indian Embassy, returned home by boat through Hong Kong, and worked in the Institute of Applied Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, with semiconductor as the research direction.

One year later, Tang Dingyuan and Huang Kun returned home. Another year later, Hong Chaosheng returned home. Apart from Huang Kun, the other three have all worked in the Institute of Applied Physics (Institute of Physics) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences after returning to China. They teach in Peking University, and the research work of the Institute of Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences is still the backbone of their work.

Based on the common ideal and pursuit, the four people communicate more and more closely. Under the leadership of Huang Kun, in 1954, four people held a special discussion on how to develop semiconductor science and technology in China, and began to cooperate in teaching for Peking University students.

The four students teach together in Peking University, which has become the starting point for each to start a new chapter in semiconductor science.

Since then, Huang Kun has established the first semiconductor specialization in China, Tang Dingyuan has created the first narrow band gap semiconductor branch discipline in China, Hong Chaosheng has participated in the establishment of cryogenic physics specialty in China University of Science and Technology, Wang Shouwu has created the first semiconductor research laboratory, semiconductor device factory, Semiconductor Research Institute and national semiconductors in China. Physical Testing Center.


In 1979, Wang Shouwu and the researchers worked on the super net line.

And four people are set up for Peking University students.

3. Beida Semiconductor Specialization

In 1956, my country proposed

During the summer vacation of this year, five universities, Peking University, Fudan University, Nanda University, Xiamen University and Northeast People's University (the predecessor of Jilin University), jointly launched the first semiconductor specialization in the Department of Physics of Peking University, with Huang Kun as director and Xie Xide as deputy director.


Huang Kun and Xie Xide

Xie Xide is known as the mother of semiconductor in China, the pioneer of semiconductor physics and surface physics in China, and the first female university president since the founding of New China.

Born in Quanzhou, Fujian in 1921, she graduated from Xiamen University in 1946 and went to the United States for further study the following year. In 1949, Shechd graduated from the Smith School of Women's Arts and Sciences in the United States and went on to study for a doctorate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), free of charge. After several rounds, she and her husband returned home in 1952 to teach at Shanghai Fudan University.



In order to cooperate with the construction of the motherland, in 1956, Xie Sid put down her five-month-old child and went to Peking University to co-chair China's first semiconductor special group with Huang Kun. In 1958, she co-authored China's first book with Huang Kun.


At that time, well-known teachers who participated in the construction of semiconductor specialization, as well as professor Gao Dingsan from the Department of Physics of Jilin University.

He is a famous semiconductor physics and device scientist, microelectronics and Optoelectronics expert, educator, and the founder of the semiconductor Department of Jilin University. Speaking of it, he is also Huang Kun's brother in the Physics Department of Southwest United University.


Gao Dingsan

Gao Dingsan was born in Shanghai in 1914. Different from Huang Kun and Xie Sid, Gao Dingshan was admitted to the affiliated Middle School of Shanghai Datong University in 1937 because he had not studied English at the age of 20 and was encouraged and independent by his aunt who returned from American studies. He was admitted to the affiliated Middle School of Shanghai Datong University after half a year of self-study. In 1937, he was admitted to Shanghai Jiaotong University.

One year later, when the Japanese invaders attacked Wuhan, Gao Dingsangan followed Mr. Zhou Enlai out calmly, inspired by Mr. Zhou's spirit, and once put pen into the No. 14 Huangpu Military Academy in Wuhan. He just dropped out of school because he was short-sighted and went to Kunming to enter the Southwest United University. After graduation, he took the only place to stay in the United States on public expense, which was won by Yang Zhenning, Huang Kun's close friend.


The 1941 class photo of the Department of Physics, Southwest United University, left one is Gao Dingsan (Tuyuan: Gao's Institute)

There is also a female gentleman who has intersected with Peking University Semiconductor, Lin Lanying, who is praised as


Lin Lanying

She was born in Putian, Fujian, in 1918, and was admitted to Fujian Union University in 1936. After graduation, she remained in school to teach. In 1946, she received a letter of admission from Dickinson College in the United States. Two years later, she left for the United States to study. In only one year, she received her Bachelor of Mathematics degree and the Golden Key Medal of the Dickinson Chapter of the American University Honorary Society.

In 1948, solid state physics rose in the United States, and the first semiconductor germanium single crystal was born in Bell Laboratory the following year. Lin Lanying, keenly aware of the important value of this field, came to the University of Pennsylvania to study solid state physics. She spent another year getting her master's degree in solid state physics.

In 1955, Lin Lanying received a doctorate in solid state physics and became the first female doctor since the University of Pennsylvania was founded.


Dr. Lin Lanying's Graduation Photo

Shechd, Gao Dingsan and Lin Lanying were all hindered by the United States.

When Gao Dingsan prohibited Chinese science and engineering students from returning to China under U.S. legislation and offered financial aid to those who said they would not return to China, he always made it clear that they would return to China, so he was disqualified as a grant and teaching assistant. Then he decided to drop out of school and work as a researcher at Los Angeles International Rectifier Company.

In order to participate in the construction of the motherland as soon as possible, Gao Dingsan and other foreign students wrote to the President of the United States asking for release. At the same time, he asked his wife to write to Premier Zhou for help, and finally took advantage of it in early May 1955.


In 1948, Gao Dingsan was in his Berkeley apartment. On the table was a picture of his wife (source: Gao's Institute)

Lin Lanying's way home is more difficult. She had helped Sovenia successfully build its first silicon single crystal before, and the United States was reluctant to let go such a valuable talent.

Lin Lanying in 1956

The FBI didn't find it. In the medicine box they searched, Lin Lanying hid Lin Lanying's gift to New China.

The five schools jointly held semiconductor majors at Peking University, and Lin Lanying was invited to do so.

In the process of participating in the semiconductor specialization construction of Peking University, Xie Sid and Gao DingSan have accumulated a lot of experience in professional teaching and discipline construction.



He returned to Fudan in 1958 and was promoted from an ordinary physics teacher. He served as the director of the Archaeology Department of Solid Physics, Department of Physics, Fudan University, and vice-director of Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics. She participated in the compilation of many semiconductors'lectures and textbooks. In 1977, she boldly put forward suggestions to fill the gap in Chinese surface physics and develop surface science. In 1978, she was elected Vice-President of the Chinese Physics Society. In 1980, she was elected member of the Department of Mathematics and Science of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and twice elected member of the Bureau (1981 and 1992).

At the age of 62, Xie Xide became the first female university president in New China. During her five years as president, Fudan was as famous for its active atmosphere as its rigorous teaching. Fudan broke the pattern that only liberal arts and Sciences were in the University and became a university with humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, technological sciences and management sciences. Comprehensive University.

In June 1987, 13 universities in the United States, Britain, Japan, Canada and Hong Kong awarded her honorary Ph.D. in Science, Honorary Doctor of Engineering and Ph.D. in Humanities. In June 1987, when she was awarded Honorary Ph.D. from the State University of New York at Alabany, USA Today newspaper reporter interviewed her and called her the Honorary Ph.D. in Science, Honorary Engineering and Humanities.

After returning to Northeast People's University, Gao Dingsan presided over the establishment of the only semiconductor department in China in 1959, serving as chairman for 25 years. In 1961, Gao Dingsan chaired the compilation of the Transistor Principle Recommendation, which became a pioneering work in this field in China.

Its optoelectronic technology played an important role in the Gulf War which broke out soon.


Lin Lanying

In 1957, Lin Lanying took over from Hong Chaosheng as the head of the Semiconductor Materials Group. In 1960, he entered the Semiconductor Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences to do research work. With her direct participation, the first silicon single crystal, the first open-door silicon single crystal furnace, the first GaAs single crystal and other semiconductor materials have come out one after another, making immeasurable contributions to space semiconductor materials in China.

In the 1990s, Lin Lanying actively promoted the construction of the Northern Microelectronics Research and Development Base. He joined the materials departments of the Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, the Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, the Center of Microelectronics and the Semiconductor Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In 1980, she was still presiding over a variety of important basic research topics in the field of semiconductor materials.

In the last three years of her life, she, together with Academician Wang Yangyuan, Academician Li Zhijian and Academician Wu Dexin, founded a university led by Peking University.

Huang was nearly 10 years younger than his predecessors. He only returned from the United States in 1958, failing to catch up with the landmark moment when the five universities jointly gathered at Peking University.


Huang Chang (Tuyuan: Xi'an Institute of Microelectronics Technology)

After Mr. Xie Xide and Mr. Gao Dingsan returned to their original schools, in July 1959, Mr. Huang Chang was assigned to the Department of Physics, Peking University to teach semiconductor devices. He was also the director and associate researcher of the 11-room Computer Technology Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and began to train graduate students.

In the meantime, Mr. Huang Chang put forward

Large Scale Integrated Circuits and Microcomputers, edited by Huang Guang, systematically expounds the theoretical research results on integrated circuits and microcomputers, and summarizes the research results and experience over the years. It has guiding significance and reference value for the scientific and technological personnel both inside and outside the industry.


Later, in 1965, Huang was transferred to 156 Engineering Departments (771 predecessors) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, where he began his career in aerospace microelectronics and microcomputers. He has taken postgraduate students from 771 institutes, Western Radio and TV University and BeijingNormal University, and has successfully developed various ASIC and computers for launch vehicles, which has made great contributions to the development of China's space industry.

Wu Ping, founder of Exhibition Communications, once wrote in an article that after winning the first prize for national scientific and technological progress, Huang Chang not only won a number of foreign academician titles, but also the first domestic professional to publish a paper in the top international professional magazine IEDM in 1979, but has not been appraised as an academician, which makes many disciples feel aggrieved. In this regard, Huang Chang is very indifferent, many times stressed that returning to China is

New Academic Leader from Peking University


Under the careful cultivation of the teachers represented by the above-mentioned gentlemen, the Department of Physics of Peking University has stepped out of a group of excellent semiconductor talents, some of whom have inherited the cause of the teachers and continue to open up a world for Chinese semiconductor academic research and personnel training.

The Department of Physics of Peking University used to have

After graduation, all five of them have taught in the Department of Physics, Peking University. Among them, Gan Zizhao, Xia Jianbai and Qin Guogang were successively elected academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences; Mo Dang was successively the chairman of the Department of Physics of Sun Yat-sen University, the director of the Institute of Microelectronics of Sun Yat-sen University and the director of the Guangdong Physics Society.


Qin Guogang

Qin Guogang graduated from the Department of Physics of Peking University in 1956, and graduated from the Department of Solid State Physics in 1961.

He still remembers that when Huang Kun first pushed the door in, he was a little disappointed and felt that such an important course.

Since 1985, Qin Guogang has been a professor in the Department of Physics of Peking University. He has devoted himself to semiconductor research for decades. He has made systematic and creative achievements in the field of semiconductor impurities and defects. Today, Qin Guogang is over the age of ancient times, but his successor, Huang Kun and other academic ancestors, is still conscientiously working in the forefront of scientific research and the cause of training scientific and technological talents.



Professor Mo Dang of Sun Yat-sen University is also a 1956 graduate of the Department of Physics of Peking University. Modang was the top student in Guangdong College Entrance Examination in 1952. After graduation, he stayed at school to engage in teaching and research work. He was transferred back to Guangzhou in 1976 and joined the Department of Physics of Sun Yat-sen University three years later.

During his schooling, Huang Kun gave him great inspiration and influence. He was the manuscript organizer of "Semiconductor Physics" written by Professors Huang Kun and Xie Xide. The first textbook of semiconductor materials compiled by him, "Semiconductor Materials" was reviewed by Mr. Huang Kun.

Since graduation from university, Modang has done a lot of in-depth research in the fields of semiconductor materials and semiconductor physics, ellipsometry spectroscopy, solid optical properties, photorefractive crystals and so on. He and his students have initiated ellipsometric spectroscopy of semiconductor ions and fractional differential spectroscopy in the world to develop and popularize me. National ellipsometry has made an important contribution. He was also elected to the World List of Persons published in the United States and appointed a member of the New York Academy of Sciences.



Gan Zizhao was admitted to the Department of Physics of Peking University from Zhanjiang in 1954 and was known as the first semester.

In Gan Zizhao's memory, Huang Kun's class time and preparation time are 1 to 10, that is to say, he spent 10 hours preparing for one hour's class.

After graduation, Gan Zizhao stayed at the university. He served as associate professor, professor, director of Institute of Solid Physics, first chief expert of the National Superconducting Expert Committee of Peking University. He was elected to the Academy of Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1991.

In the 1960s, he mainly engaged in the research of semiconductor physics, solved the physical mechanism of tunneling process in semiconductor germanium, developed the theory of coherent propagation of light in semiconductor in the early 1980s, and made contributions to the frontier research of condensed matter physics and laser physics.


Xia Jianbai

Xia Jianbai, a Shanghai native, was admitted to the Department of Physics of Peking University at the age of 17. He was most impressed by Huang Kun's solid state physics course. In 1962, he registered for Mr. Huang Kun's postgraduate course, majoring in solid state physics.

After graduating from school for three years, Xia Jianbai stayed in the physics department to teach. After that, he was involved in the period of civil strife.

Xia Jianbai is eager to devote himself to semiconductor research. In just ten years, he has independently developed molecular beam epitaxy equipment manufactured by China, and produced superlattices and quantum well materials with excellent quality. He has also made a series of pioneering achievements in theoretical research.


Han Ruqi

Unlike the top four, after graduating from the undergraduate physics department of Peking University in 1962, he did not continue to study as a graduate student, but directly remained in school to teach.

He was the executive vice president, professor and doctoral supervisor of the Institute of Microelectronics of Peking University. He has written and published textbooks such as Solid Physics, Amorphous Physics, Physical Basis of Nonconductor, Principles and Design of Transistors, and has been responsible for a number of national key scientific and technological research tasks and national defense military industry pre-research projects. Objectives.

Unfortunately, Han Ruqi died of illness on February 16, 2011 at the age of 72.


1958 First Five-Year Graduates of Semiconductor Specialization, Department of Physics, Peking University (Huang Kun in the front row, Chen Chenjia in the second row)

Chen Chenjia studied in the Department of Physics of Xiamen University for three years. In 1956, with the union of five universities, she transferred to the report on semiconductor specialization of the Department of Physics of Peking University.

Later, in March 1961, she was transferred to the Semiconductor Teaching and Research Department of the Physics Department of Peking University to assist Huang Kun in the work of the teaching and research department. At that time, Huang Yongbao was the director of the laboratory, Han Ruqi was the teaching secretary, and the most experienced members of the teaching and research department were Huang Kun, Huang Chang and Huang Yongbao. With their efforts, young teachers in the teaching and research department have successively made great achievements in the research of device physics and material physics, and scientific research work has been on the right track.

In addition to discussing and learning from Huang Kun, Chen Chenjia also studied from Gan Zizhao and Qin Guogang of the theoretical group during the construction of the Solid Energy Spectrum Laboratory.


Xu Juyan

Xu Juyan first studied in the Department of Physics of Xiamen University for three years. He moved to the Department of Physics of Peking University in 1956. Huang Kun and other teachers academically brought him to a new field of semiconductor science.

In 1957, after completing his studies, Xu Juyan was assigned to the 10th Institute of Research of the 10th Research Institute of the Ministry of National Defense. He became the main developer of the first silicon planar integrated circuit in China, and later participated in the first Institute of Integrated Circuits in China in 1970.

In 1985, Xu Juyan participated in the establishment of Wuxi Branch of the 24th Institute of Research and Research, and subsequently co-founded the first joint enterprise of microelectronics research and production with Wuxi 742 Plant.

In 1995, Xu Juyan was elected academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering.


Yu Zhongyu

Yu Zhongyu and Wang Yangyuan are both graduates of Physics Department of Peking University in 1958. After graduation, Yu Zhongyu has successively served as Deputy Director of Hebei Semiconductor Research Institute, Chief Engineer and Director of Dongguang Photoelectric Factory of the Ministry of Electronic Industry.

Wang Yangyuan chose to stay in school after graduation. He led the development of China's first 1024-bit MOS RAM in the academic field, pioneered the silicon gate N-channel MOS technology in China, and led the construction of China's first large-scale integrated ICCAD system. Since then, he has built many new devices, processes and structural circuits in microelectronics. Trees.


Wang Yangyuan

In 1978, Wang Yangyuan established the Microelectronics Research Laboratory in Peking University and served as the Director of the Department. He later became the Director of Peking University's Microelectronics Institute. He also chaired the establishment of SOI New Devices Research Laboratory and the first National Key Laboratory of Micron/Nano Processing Technology in China.

Wang Yangyuan's achievements lie not only in academia and education, but also in a key milestone for China's chip manufacturing industry.

Beidaren Rising Semiconductor Industry


In 2004, Wang Yangyuan, 69, together with Professor Yan Xiaolang and Dr. Zhang Rujing, was established by the Institute of Microelectronics of Peking University and other applications for international cooperation with SMIC.

The chief scientists and leaders of these subjects, including Professors Zhang Xing, Huang Ru and Kang Jinfeng, are all students of Wang Yangyuan. They are young academic leaders who have grown up.

Four years ago, Zhongxin International was founded by Wang Yangyuan and Zhang Rujing.

Zhang Rujing, known as the third person in Chinese semiconductor industry, completed the construction and operation of 10 semiconductor factories in the United States, Japan, Singapore, Italy and Taiwan, China during his tenure at Texas Instrument. Then he founded the World University in Taiwan and sold it to Taiji, the world's largest wafer factory, for $5 billion.


Richard Chang

As soon as Zhongxin International was founded, it set the record of the fastest chip factory in the world at that time. On August 1, 2000, Zhongxin International laid its first pile at its first 8-inch factory in Shanghai. It took only 13 months before and after it was officially completed and put into operation.

In 2002, Zhongxin International started construction in two 12-inch chip factories in Beijing. Two years later, it built the first large-scale 12-inch nano-scale integrated circuit production line in China. Zhongxin International rapidly ranks among the top three in the global semiconductor industry.

With their joint efforts and in line with the development of China's national conditions, Zhongxin International has gradually introduced a number of investors such as Shanghai Industries, Motorola, Zhangjiang Technologies, Peking University Bluebird, Goldman Sachs, Huadeng International and Singapore Temasek Holdings to become the largest wafer OEM factory in mainland China.


Neutral Semiconductor Yin Zhiyao

Yin Zhiyao, a representative of China's semiconductor industry who studied at Peking University, is known as the father of China Core Godfather.

Born in Beijing in 1944, he was admitted to the Department of Chemistry and Physics of HKUST in 1962. In 1968, he was assigned to Lanzhou Refinery. In 1980, he received a master's degree from the Department of Chemistry of Peking University and went to Los Angeles, California to pursue a doctorate in Physical Chemistry.

He founded a small number of medium and micro semiconductors in China, which can compete with the top international semiconductor equipment companies in technology, and constantly expand the market share. It is said that his self-developed 5nm plasma etcher will soon enter the 5nm production line of TSMC.

In July this year, the company was approved by the Section's IPO Registration Regulatory Commission. Zhishi has made a detailed report on this. Challenge American giants in 11 years! This home-made 5nm chip etching faucet, three years to turn the deficit will be landed in the Department of Sciences.


Wu Jihan in Bijilu

Wu Jihan, one of the co-founders of BiContinental, the world's largest virtual money miner chip manufacturer, is a 2009 undergraduate graduate of Finance and psychology at Peking University.

Wu Tuohan is mainly responsible for the blockchain business, as described in the Beit mainland IPO:

In 2017, Peter Continental announced its foray into the field of AI chips, and so far a number of models have been launched.


Knowledgeable Science and Technology Wang Shaodi

The founder and CEO of AI chips, Wang Shaodi, graduated from the Department of Microelectronics, Peking University. He received a scholarship from Academician Yang Fuqing, and a master's and doctoral degree from the Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Los Angeles, California.

In response to the market demand for low-cost and low-power AI chips, Wang Shaodi founded Knowledge-Memory Technology in Beijing in 2018, and devoted himself to the research and development of digital-analog hybrid memory-computing integrated AI chips based on floating-gate technology, in order to solve the problems of memory wall and computing power in AI operations. Its self-developed embedded intelligent voice chip has been completed streaming, and is expected to be mass-produced in mid-2019.

There are two other startups aiming at visual AI chips, namely Eye Technology and Knowledge-based Technology, whose founders are graduates of Peking University.


Eye Optics Technology Zhu Jizhi

Zhu Jizhi, founder and CEO of Eye Optics Technology, graduated from the Department of Electronics, Peking University. He worked in ZTE's Video Communications Department and later served as vice president of the largest chip distributor in China. In 2014, he founded Eye Technology, focusing on the development of AI visual imaging engine's original high-end digital chips. GTIC 2018 Eye Technology Zhu Jizhi: How to Make the Eye of PK Human Eye Unmanned Vehicle

Another venture, Shengui Technologies, is a computer vision venture that specializes in face recognition and video structuring algorithms in the field of security. Its founder, Chen Ruijun, was a 1987 student in the Department of Economics and Management of Peking University. After graduation, he worked as a salesman in Datang Telecom.

In 2017, Shenzhen Science and Technology combined with hardware manufacturers to launch hardware acceleration chip based on FPGA neural network algorithm. Intelligent things have also done in-depth reports on the startup. (20 years of security veterans start a business, the CV startup needs to be the strongest.


Member of Hanno Semiconductor team

In terms of communication baseband chip, a founder of Beijing University, Hanno Semiconductor, was founded in October 2015. Its founder and CEO Zhang Cheng, head of baseband algorithm and technology promotion, and head of product development and marketing are Ph.D. in communication and information systems at Peking University.

Their preliminary research work began in 2005, and team members worked together in the HINOC project team to complete a number of major national projects. Senior consultant is Li Hongbin, a professor at the School of Information Science and Technology of Peking University. He has a great influence and reputation in the field of information and communication.

Hannuo Semiconductor's HN1000 series chips are said to be the first and only self-designed and self-developed Gigabit coaxial access chip in China, which can fully activate the existing domestic coaxial cable resources of 100 billion, and bring a safe and reliable Gigabit broadband access experience.


Core Wing Information Technology Xiao Jianhong

There is also a startup core wing information technology specializing in the development of narrowband Internet of things (NB-IoT) chips. Xiao Jianhong, founder of the company, received a bachelor's degree in microelectronics from Peking University in 2001 and later Texas A in the United States.

Xiao Jianhong founded core wing information technology in March 2017, and cut into NBIOT chip from smart meter and several subdivision scenarios of smart city. He has strategic cooperation with module merchants and solution providers at home and abroad.

In June this year, the company announced that its XY1100 chip has passed the warehousing certification of China Telecom NB-IoT chip, and will soon complete the warehousing certification of China Mobile Chip and China Unicom. Both hardware and software have been declared in mass production.

In the field of investment, there are also a group of Peking University students in the form of funds to help the development of China's semiconductor industry.


Yingfu Taike Liu Tingru

For example, Liu Tingru, 85th master of computer science at Peking University, founded Yingfutek Venture Capital Company in 2001. So far, Yingfu Taike has managed assets of more than US $3 billion. He has invested in Zhongxingxiao, Tianshui Huatian, Beijing Junzheng, Zhaoyi Innovation and other well-known domestic semiconductor enterprises.


Huaqing Capital Hu Wenbin

Hu Wenbin, who has studied finance at Peking University, founded Hua Qing Capital, a private equity fund manager, in 2016. the investment fields are mainly semiconductors, the Internet of things, intelligent manufacturing and other emerging industries, mainly supporting the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises. At present, the upstream and downstream enterprises in the semiconductor industry include Daxin Semiconductor, Diwei Code Semiconductor, Shenzhen Junyi Technology and so on.

Conclusion:Secret and great semiconductor ancestors

Peking University is a brilliant long night in semiconductor history, gathering the first batch of top semiconductor talents returned from overseas, and opening up an unprecedented cause.

Einstein once said this when he mourned Madame Curie:

In front of the first batch of ancestors who shouldered the important task of semiconductor construction in China, it was in front of the ancestors who carried the important task of semiconductor construction in China.

Now stepping on the shoulders of these giants, Peking University students or semiconductor talents exported by other colleges and universities, they inherit the bones of their ancestors, or delve into the mysteries of semiconductor theoretical knowledge, or bear what they have learned, and go to the tide of the development of China's semiconductor industry, facing a broader future.

But unfortunately, the ancestors who devoted their whole lives to the memory of history are inevitably forgotten by the times.

From 2000 to 2019, Xie Sid, Gao DingSan, Lin Lanying, Huang Kun, Wang Shouwu, Huang Chang, Hong Chaosheng, Tang Dingyuan and so on, one after another of the pioneers of the Chinese semiconductor industry died one after another, the scientific community shook, but many people who heard the news were at a loss.

In two months, the centenary of Mr. Huang Kun's birth, perhaps the circle of friends will set off a wave of memory. May everything be calm, the greatness and sublime personality of semiconductor ancestors can remain in the hearts of more people.

[计] reference documentation : Zhu Bangfen, "Huang Kun & mdash; — the founder of China's solid physics and semiconductor physics"; Yang Zhenning, "Modern Physics and Passionate Friendship"; Xi'an Institute of Microelectronics, "Masters leave the comrades Huang Open all the way"; Kun: Learning more knowledge is not as good as possible, the deeper the better"; "A letter from Huang Kun to Yang Zhenning in April 1947" "Human Fudan / Fudan University President (four) Xie Xide"; Li Laifeng "Reminiscence of my mentor Hong "Mr. Chaosheng"; "Glory forever —— Commemorating the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Gao Dingsan Academician: Recalling Father Gao Dingsan"; Liu Sijiang, "The 100-year-old academician Tang Dingyuan passed away, and once made important for China "two bombs and one star" Contribution"; Wang Yangyuan "Life is endless, climbing more than — — remember the academician Lin Lanying I know"; Chinese Journal of "Recording Lin Lanying, Academician: The Eternal Ming Lan"; Chinese Journal of "Wang Shouwu: Silicon Core Casting Brilliant "; China Association for Science and Technology "China's semiconductor research" "Pioneers" & mdash; & mdash; 100 years anniversary of the birth of Academician Wang Shouwu; Xia Jianbai Chen Chenjia He Chunyu The future, long way to go & mdash; & mdash; to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the Chinese semiconductor industry "; Chen Chen Jia" Huang Kun mourn my favorite teacher ";" China famous scientist academic overview of the twentieth century "physical volumes;" everyone "section.

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