Literary awards and peace awards are usually the most controversial, especially this year, because they will be awarded last year and this year, and the Peace Prize will reveal whether Trump can get what he wants.
For science awards, the results of each year will stimulate people's interest and enthusiasm in science, and promote investment in related fields.
Before the first Nobel Prize is awarded this year, see what the award looks like.
Screenshot of Nobel Prize official website
Literature Award: "Chinese Kavka" is on the Hot list
This year's literature award will be the 2 winner ever since the 2018 prize winner of the literature prize has been suspended until this year.
This is because the Swedish Academy of Literature, which awards literary awards, was embroiled in a sex scandal in 2017, with 18 women testifying in November 2017 that French photographer Arnault was suspected of sexual assault and sexual harassment between 1996 and 2017, partly in places belonging to the Swedish Academy of Arts. In addition, Arnault also leaked the name of the winner, Arnault's wife is the Swedish Academy of Arts academician Fruttenson.
There were huge differences in the handling of Arnault's scandal within the Swedish Academy of Literature, with many academicians leaving, leaving only 10 academicians who were able to perform their duties normally. The 2018 Nobel Prize for Literature was postponed to 2019 for the first time in 70 years.
On the prediction list of the 2019 Literature Award, Canadian female poet Anne Carson, Japanese writer Haruki Murakami, Syrian poet Adonis, Kenyan writer Ngugi Watiango, Russian female writer Lyudmila Ulyzkaya and Chinese writer Canxue are all popular candidates.
In recent years, every time the Nobel Prize for Literature is awarded, "Murakami Chunshu" has become a hot topic of discussion. In early 2006, Murakami ran with the Nobel Prize for Literature for 12 years after winning the "Franz Kavka" award for "Kavka by the Sea".
In his autobiographical work, "my career is a novelist," he wrote: "whenever the name is called the award, from the gold medal to the" Literature Award ", the objective evidence of value does not exist except that the evaluation benchmark is limited to a special award. If you want to be picky, you can find many flaws, and if you want to treasure them, you can never see them as too much.
This may be Murakami's clear response to the Nobel Prize for running with him.
Canadian poetess Carson has a odds of 1 to 5 on the British gaming company NicerOdds's list of winners as of April 4, followed by Maryse Conte, a woman writer born in Guadrop, a French dependent region, with a odds of 1 to 6, followed by Haruki Murakami and Chinese female writer Canxue Murakami.
Anne Carson's writing involves many forms, such as poetry, prose, criticism, novel and so on. She publishes "the bitter sweetness of Love and desire", "Glass, satire and God", "Red autobiography: poetic novel", "Night" and so on. Michael Ondajie, author of the British patient, praised her as "the most exciting poet in the English-speaking world today."
Han Xue, a Chinese female writer born in Hunan, is regarded as the representative figure of avant-garde literature, such as "the Cabin on the Mountain", "Huangni Street", "Old floating Cloud", "Wuxiang Street" and so on. Canxue is one of the most translated and published Chinese female writers in foreign countries. She is also known as "Chinese Kavka."
Anders Olsen, permanent secretary of the Swedish Academy of Arts, said the emphasis was placed on the "coordination" of the two winners, such as "avoiding literature in the same field, or choosing a man and a woman," Radio France International reported. The Nobel Prize for Literature is also considered to have a tendency to consider regional balance.
Peace Prize: Swedish environmental girl, Trump controversial
Eighty years ago, a member of Sweden's parliament nominated Adolf Hitler as the Nobel Peace Prize candidate, which was subsequently cancelled. In addition, American singer Michael Jackson has also been nominated as a candidate for the Peace Prize.
According to the Irish Times, from the above nominations, the peace prize has always been lacking in absurd and unfounded nominations. This may explain why there are Swedish environmental girls and American presidents in this year's list of peace awards.
Tonberry, 16, has millions of followers around the world because he launched a global climate campaign strike and lambasted world leaders for their inaction against climate change at the United Nations General Assembly, Reuters reported. Time magazine named Tonberry as the top 100 of the time in 2019.
Some conservationists see Tonberry as the most vocal fighter for climate change, while some right-wing critics accuse her of being a "hypocrite" and a "playful".
If it wins the prize, it will break the record of Malala Yousafzai, the winner of the 2014 peace prize, when he was 19 years old, and became the youngest winner in history. Asle Sveen, a historian specializing in the study of prizes, said that the award of peace prize to young people would bring huge burden to them.
President Trump made no secret of his desire for the Nobel Peace Prize. In February, Trump told the White House that Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe had submitted a "most beautiful" and "five-page" letter to the Nobel Prize Committee, nominating himself as a candidate for the Nobel Peace Prize and commending his efforts to achieve denuclearization of North Korea.
Trump has become a popular candidate for this year's Peace Prize with Abe's assists. Trump has repeatedly expressed "resentment" about Obama's award of the Nobel Peace Prize in 2009, according to CNN. "they give the award to Obama, and Obama doesn't even know why he won the prize," Trump said.
In addition, Li Jihao, the widow of former South Korean President, said that South Korean President Wen Yin performed well in the summit, hoping he could win the peace prize. In this regard, Wen Yin said that if the peace is brought to the Korean Peninsula, this award should be given to the president of the United States.
With the double blessing of the Japanese and South Korean heads of state, Trump is looking forward to winning the prize.
Science Awards: Gene Editing Technology is Good
This year's Nobel Prize was first awarded in physiology or medicine. Last year, the award went to two scientists in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Which field is more likely to win this year?
David Pendell Burley, chief analyst at the Thomson Reuters Citation Crown Award, has predicted a number of Nobel laureates since 2002, mainly by analyzing the citations of papers written by scientists.
Pendlebury told STAT, an American Medical and biological media, Hans Clevers is probably awarded a prize in physiology or medicine to commend its findings on Wnt signaling pathways.
Jason Sheltzer, a professor at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) in the United States, believes it is time for gene editing technology to win this year, including Jennifer A, a professor of chemistry and molecular and cell biology at the University of California, Berkeley. Doudna).
Dudner is one of the inventors of Crispr-Cas 9, a new genome editing technology. In her capacity as a correspondent, she has called for a worldwide ban on the use of the technology, giving scientists, ethicists and the public time to fully understand the issues surrounding this scientific breakthrough.
Inside science, a website affiliated with the American Institute of Physics, reported that Astrophysics has received more and more attention in recent years, and the discovery of "extrasolar planets" orbiting stars outside the sun has become a hot prize, according to inside science, a website affiliated with the American Institute of Physics. Michelle Major, an emeritus professor at the University of Geneva in Switzerland, and others first discovered exoplanets in 1995, followed by the discovery of the same type of planets, and progress has been made in human cognition of extrasolar planets.
How was the Nobel Prize selected?
People have always been curious about the rules of the Nobel Prize. According to Nobel's will, the winner is not influenced by any nationality, ideology or religion throughout the selection process, and the only criterion for the selection is the size of achievement.
The physics and chemistry awards were assessed by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. The prize in physiology or medicine was assessed by the Royal Caroline medical school in Sweden. The prize was awarded by the Swedish Academy and the peace prize was elected by the Norway Parliament. The economic award was awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Each awarding unit has a committee composed of 5 members, which is responsible for the selection of three years.
The deliberations and votes at all stages were conducted in secret. The Nobel Prize is generally awarded only to individuals, with the exception of the Peace Prize, which can also be awarded to institutions. Candidates can only be nominated before they die, but formal awards can be awarded after death.
In the history of the Nobel Prize, most of the winners were white men, sparking controversy over the prejudice of the selection. According to Nature magazine, in response to the "imbalance" between the gender and racial ratio of the winners, the secretary-general of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the secretary-general of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, said they have taken steps to improve the imbalance, and if that is not enough, the hospital is ready to do more.
However, it is emphasized that the scientific discoveries of the winners must be the most important ones, otherwise the value of the prizes will be lowered and eventually hurt everyone.
It is interesting to note that BBC has summed up the general characteristics of Nobel laureates by analyzing photographs and information materials of Nobel laureates over the years: married men in the United States around the age of 61, without glasses, oftenshaving.
Although this conclusion is not necessarily reliable, one thing is for sure. The United States has always been a big winner.