One year after contracting COVID-19, how are COVID-19 patients? A research team from Wuhan Union Medical College Hospital presented the latest research results.
On November 23, The Chinese journal Frontiers in Medicine published a paper by a team from the Union Hospital affiliated to Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Wuhan Union Hospital for short). The study found that even non-critically ill patients still had multisystem problems nearly a year after COVID-19 diagnosis,Physical symptoms such as difficulty sleeping, shortness of breath, fatigue and joint pain, as well as psychological problems such as anxiety and depression.
In addition,56.7% of non-critical patients showed abnormal lung CT, including ground glass opacity, bronchiectasis, nodules, and fibrosis.
Sequelae assessment 1 year after COVID-19 diagnosis, Frontiers in Medicine, China
On November 23, Chinese journal Frontiers in Medicine published a paper by a research team from Wuhan Union Medical College Hospital: Sequelae Assessment one year after COVID-19 diagnosis, focusing on the long-term impact of COVID-19 on non-severe patients.
To this end, the research team recruited 120 discharged COVID-19 patients from Wuhan Union Medical College Hospital and makeshift hospitals between January 29, 2020 and April 1, 2020, and conducted a follow-up study between November 23, 2020 and January 11, 2021.
The average age of 120 discharged patients was 51.6&plusMn. At the age of 10.8. Among them, 104 (86.7%) discharged patients were non-severe cases, and 16 (13.3%) were severe cases. 49 cases (40.8%) were male. The shortest hospital stay was 18 days, the longest was 33.8 days, and the median hospital stay was 25.5 days. The median time from discharge to follow-up was 284.5 days (minimum 270 days, maximum 309 days). The median time from diagnosis to follow-up was 314.5 days (shortest 296 days, longest 338 days).
All discharged patients completed a series of questionnaires to assess their symptoms and quality of life as well as their psychological status.At the same time, lung function examination, chest CT examination, 6-minute walking test (6MWT), blood routine examination, liver and kidney function examination, fasting blood glucose examination, blood lipid examination, immunoglobulin G antibody examination were performed.
The study found that,Difficulty sleeping, shortness of breath, fatigue and joint pain were present in nearly one-third of non-severe casesIs the most common sequelae. Among them, there were 52 cases with sleep difficulty (43.3%), 49 cases with shortness of breath (40.8%), 43 cases with fatigue (35.8%), and 39 cases with joint pain (32.5%).
Lung CT scans were also performed on 97 of these discharged patients. Up to 55 (56.7%) of these discharged patients, including 47 who were not critically ill, and 8 critically recovered patients had impaired lung function and abnormal CT findings. One of them. The most common abnormal CT findings were nodules (55.7%), followed by linear shadows (47.4%), fibrosis (17.5%), ground glass shadows (16.5%), and bronchiectasis (14.4%).
The long-term effects of COVID-19
However, the paper notes that the volume of bilateral lung lesions in discharged patients was significantly smaller than in previous studies conducted at six months of symptom onset. This suggests that despite abnormal radiographic findings in some patients, the intensity of the injury is minimal and the lesion continues to resolve.
A previous 15-year follow-up study on SARS showed thatThe pulmonary interstitial changes and decline in lung function caused by SARS can be successfully treated, and significant recovery can be achieved within 2 years.But whether lung function can be restored for COVID-19 remains to be studied.
In terms of liver and kidney functions, a few discharged patients had abnormal liver and kidney functions, such as ALT and creatinine. However, due to the absence of pre-infection liver and kidney function tests, abnormal liver and kidney function cannot be completely attributed to COVID-19, and long-term follow-up studies are still needed.
In addition, it is worth noting that the psychological problems of discharged patients can not be ignored, a considerable number of discharged patients have anxiety and depression symptoms. According to the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and depression Scale, 50 patients (41.7%) had anxiety symptoms and 45 patients (37.5%) had depression symptoms. Among the non-severe cases, 41 (39.4%) had anxiety symptoms and 39 (37.5%) had depression symptoms.
Finally, the paper concludes,Even in non-severe cases, discharged patients develop multisystem problems nearly a year after COVID-19 diagnosis, requiring further investigation.
The world is paying attention to the aftereffects of COVID-19. In August, Nature published a study called "Long-term Effects of more than 50 COVID-19: A Systematic Review." The study, by a US and Mexican team, showed that 80 per cent of infected patients developed one or more long-term symptoms,There were 55 possible sequelae.The most common symptoms were fatigue (58 percent), headaches (44 percent), attention problems (27 percent), hair loss (25 percent), breathing difficulties (24 percent), smell problems (21 percent), and coughing (19 percent). Lung CT abnormalities are also common, with 35% of patients still showing abnormalities 60 to 100 days after the initial lung CT scan. In addition, about 10 percent of those discharged developed chest pain, nausea, memory loss, tinnitus and other symptoms.
For new crown may bring sequela, on May 13, this year our country WeiJianWei, the Ministry of Civil Affairs and other four departments jointly established the hospital COVID - 19 major dysfunction in patients with rehabilitation plan, on respiratory function, heart function, physical function, psychological function, and the main performance of the daily life activity disabilities, assessment methods and rehabilitation training method specification.