According to the Fox New York Channel in the United States, New York City health officials said on the 25th local time that the outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in the Bronx district of New York has caused 1 death, and there are currently 19 confirmed cases.
The New York City Department of Health said four cooling towers in the Bronx tested positive for Legionella and that local disinfection of the towers had been ordered. Health Commissioner Wassan pointed out that there have been 19 confirmed cases of Legionnaires' disease in the local area, of which 1 has died and 8 have been hospitalized.
Legionnaires' disease, also known as Legionnaires' disease, is a zoonotic infectious disease. As the name suggests, this is a disease caused by a type of disease called Legionella. The disease first erupted in 1976 at the American Veterans Association, so the bacterium is called legionnaires′ disease bacterium, or Legionella for short. That is, the causative agent of the disease is bacteria, not viruses like COVID-19 and monkeypox.
Just by looking at the name, this disease is an acute respiratory infectious disease that attacks the lungs of humans. However, Legionnaires' disease also has a non-pneumonic form, called Pontiac fever, and there are also pneumoniae legionella, called Legionella pneumophila. Legionella, commonly referred to, refers to the pneumonia type.
In general, the incubation period of Legionnaires' pneumoniae is 2 to 10 days, and the prodrome symptoms are fatigue, headache, and muscle aches throughout the body, and sudden fever within 1 to 2 days, and even up to 40 °C. The vast majority of patients will have symptoms of cough, starting with dry cough, then accompanied by sputum coughing up, and even in special cases, coughing up blood.
The symptoms of legionnaires' disease are actually quite common, similar to many other diseases, which can lead to some misdiagnosis. Once treatment is delayed due to misdiagnosis or other reasons, the condition can worsen. The mortality rate of Legionnaires' disease is very high, up to 25% to 30%, and in some cases up to 40%!
The most suitable survival and environment for Legionella is warm water with a temperature between 35 ° C and 45 ° C, and rarely appears in water with a temperature of less than 20 ° C. As a result, they often prefer to live in surface water, water pipes, mud, and lakes or rivers contaminated with hot wastewater. The air conditioning system and shower facilities, in particular, are their favourite places. In tap water, Legionella can survive for up to 415 days and in distilled water for 139 days.
Water pollution is an important way for legionella to spread, hospital drinking water, bathing sprinklers, air conditioning condensate, cooling tower water, etc., have been detected Legionnaires' disease, and in history, there have been incidents in which air-conditioned cooling towers contaminated by Legionella have caused 91 people to be infected with Legionnaires' disease and 3 people to die. This is because the cooling tower water contains inorganic salts, organic matter and other microorganisms, which are very suitable for the growth of Legionella, and also provide another form of transmission - aerosols.